Archive for September 16, 2012

Cold Fusion: The efforts of mankind in the race to engineer LENR

September 16, 2012 Leave a comment

Probably the most recognizable name in Cold Fusion efforts world-wide is Andrea Rossi. It must be said that there are many notable researchers and scientists behind these progressions and I will attempt to update this section throughout the coming days to put together a comprehensive over-view of where we are in these efforts.

Read more…

Genetics and DNA

September 16, 2012 Leave a comment

Important Advance in Understanding Human Genome


The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project, an international collaboration of more than 440 scientists in 32 labs in United States, the United Kingdom, Spain, Singapore and Japan, has announced the results of a five-year study of the regulation and organization of the human genome.

Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci / the ENCODE project’s logo (Stanford University / / ENCODE project)

The results have been published in one main integrative paper and five other papers in the journalNature, 18 papers in Genome Research, six papers in Genome Biology and a series of reviews in theJournal of Biological Chemistry.

“The ENCODE project not only generated an enormous body of data about our genome, but it also analyzed many issues to better understand how the genome functions in different types of cells. These insights from integrative analyses are really stories about how molecular machines interact with each other and work on DNA to produce the proteins and RNAs needed for each cell to function within our bodies,” said Dr Ross Hardison of Pennsylvania State University, a co-author of reviews in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

The Journal of Biological Chemistry recognized that the results from the ENCODE project also would catalyze much new research from biochemists and molecular biologists around the world. Hence, the journal commissioned these articles not only to communicate the insights from the papers now being published but also to stimulate more research in the broader community,” he said.

The human genome consists of about 3 billion DNA base pairs, but only a small percentage of DNA actually codes for proteins. The roles and functions of the remaining genetic information were unclear to scientists and even referred to as ‘junk DNA.’ But the results of the ENCODE project is filling this knowledge gap. The findings revealed that more than 80 percent of the human genome is associated with biological function.

The study showed in a comprehensive way that proteins switch genes on and off regularly – and can do so at distances far from the genes they regulate – and it determined sites on chromosomes that interact, the locations where chemical modifications to DNA can influence gene expression, and how the functional forms of RNA can regulate the expression of genetic information.

The results establish the ways in which genetic information is controlled and expressed in specific cell types and distinguish particular regulatory regions that may contribute to diseases.

“The deeper knowledge of gene regulation coming from the ENCODE project will have a positive impact on medical science,” Dr Hardison said. “For example, recent genetic studies have revealed many genomic locations that can affect a person’s susceptibility to common diseases. The ENCODE data show that many of these regions are involved in gene regulation, and the data provide hypotheses for how variations in these regions can affect disease susceptibility.”

Bibliographic information: The ENCODE Project Consortium. 2012. An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome. Nature 489, 57–74; doi: 10.1038/nature11247


Studies slow the human DNA clock

Revised estimates of mutation rates bring genetic accounts of human prehistory into line with archaeological data.

18 September 2012
At 500,000 years, the dating of this skull of Homo heidelbergensis clashed with previous DNA dates for Neanderthal origins.J. TRUEBA/MSF/SPL

Now archaeologists and geneticists are beginning to tell the same story, thanks to improved estimates of DNA’s mutation rate — the molecular clock that underpins genetic dating1–4. “It’s incredibly vindicating to finally have some reconciliation between genetics and archaeology,” says Jeff Rose, an archaeologist at the University of Birmingham, UK. Archaeologists and geneticists may now be able to tackle nuanced questions about human history with greater confidence in one another’s data. “They do have to agree,” says Aylwyn Scally, an evolutionary genomicist at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Hinxton, UK. “There was a real story.”

The concept of a DNA clock is simple: the number of DNA letter differences between the sequences of two species indicates how much time has elapsed since their last common ancestor was alive. But for estimates to be correct, geneticists need one crucial piece of information: the pace at which DNA letters change.

Geneticists have previously estimated mutation rates by comparing the human genome with the sequences of other primates. On the basis of species-divergence dates gleaned — ironically — from fossil evidence, they concluded that in human DNA, each letter mutates once every billion years. “It’s a suspiciously round number,” says Linda Vigilant, a molecular anthropologist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. The suspicion turned out to be justified.

In the past few years, geneticists have been able to watch the molecular clock in action, by sequencing whole genomes from dozens of families5 and comparing mutations in parents and children. These studies show that the clock ticks at perhaps half the rate of previous estimates, says Scally.

In a review published on 11 September1,Scally and his colleague Richard Durbin used the slower rates to reevaluate the timing of key splits in human evolution. “If the mutation rate is halved, then all the dates you estimate double,” says Scally. “That seems like quite a radical change.” Yet the latest molecular dates mesh much better with key archaeological dates.

Take the 400,000–600,000-year-old Sima de Los Huesos site in Atapuerca, Spain, which yielded bones attributed to Homo heidelbergensis, the direct ancestors of Neanderthals. Genetic studies have suggested that earlier ancestors of Neanderthals split from the branch leading to modern humans much more recently, just 270,000–435,000 years ago. A slowed molecular clock pushes this back to a more comfortable 600,000 years ago (see ‘Better agreement over the human story’).


A slower molecular clock could also force scientists to re-think the timing of later turning points in prehistory, including the migration of modern humans out of Africa. Genetic studies of humans around the world have suggested that the ancestors of Europeans and Asians left Africa about 60,000 years ago. That date caused many to conclude that 100,000-year-old human fossils discovered in Israel represented a dead-end migration rather than the beginning of a global exodus, says Scally. Scally’s calculations put “out of Africa” closer to 120,000 years ago, suggesting that the Israeli sites represent a launching pad for the spread of humans into Asia and Europe.

The latest genetic dates also fit with several sites in the Middle East that contain tools apparently made by modern humans but dating to around 100,000 years ago. At that time, sea levels between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula were lower than they are now, and a wetter climate would have made the peninsula lush and habitable, perhaps beckoning modern humans out of Africa. Rose, who works one such site, in Oman, says that he “has been over the moon” since reading Scally and Durbin’s paper.

The revised molecular clock may also help to settle a debate over whether humans ventured further into Asia more than 60,000 years ago, says Michael Petraglia, an archaeologist at the University of Oxford, UK, who favours an early date.

Although a slowed molecular clock may harmonize the story of human evolution, it does strange things when applied further back in time, says David Reich, an evolutionary geneticist at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. “You can’t have it both ways.”

For instance, the slowest proposed mutation rate puts the common ancestor of humans and orang-utans at 40 million years ago, he says: more than 20 million years before dates derived from abundant fossil evidence. This very slow clock has the common ancestor of monkeys and humans co-existing with the last dinosaurs. “It gets very complicated,” deadpans Reich.

Some researchers, including Scally, have proposed that the mutation rate may have slowed over the past 15 million years, thereby accounting for such discrepancies. Fossil evidence suggests that ancestral apes were smaller than living ones, and small animals tend to reproduce more quickly, speeding the mutation rate.

Little concrete evidence supports this idea, says Reich. He agrees that the molecular clock must be slower than was thought, but says that the question is how slow. “My strong view right now is that the true value of the human mutation rate is an open question.”

(20 September 2012)



  1. Scally, A. & Durbin, R. Nature Rev. Genet. 13, 745–753 (2012).

    Show context

  2. Langergraber, K. E. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA (2012).Show context
  3. Hawks, J. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA (2012).Show context
  4. Sun, J. X. et al. Nature Genet. (2012).Show context
  5. Kong, A. et al. Nature 488, 471–475 (2012).

    Show context source:


    World’s First Genetically Modified Babies ‘Created’ in US

    World’s First Genetically Modified Babies ‘Created’ in US

    In a developing story, the Daily Mail is now reporting that the very first (admitted) group of genetically modified babies have been ‘created’ in the United States. The scientists involved reportedly announced the result on the night of June 27th, stating that 30 babies were born using genetic modification techniques. Furthermore, 2 of the babies tested were found to contain genes from a total of 3 different parents. The experiment also lasted over 3 years or more according to the researchers, which may be one of many.

    The ‘GM babies’ were born into women who had trouble conceiving their own children. In order to ‘birth’ the babies, extra genes from a female donor were inserted into the women’s eggs before they were fertilized. After conception, scientists fingerprinted 2 of the one-year-old children and confirmed that they inherited DNA from 3 adults — one man and 2 women. What this means is that due to inheriting these extra genes through the genetic modification process, they will now be able to pass them along to their offspring. In other words, these genetically modified babies — if allowed to mate with non-GM humans — could potentially alter the very genetic coding of generations to come.

    Genetecists state that this genetic modification method may one day be used to create babies “with extra, desired characteristics such as strength or high intelligence.”

    The news comes after it was previously reported by British scientists that scientists were creating human-animal ‘monsters’. Such reports highlight the fact that rampant genetic experimentation is already taking place on many humans around the world, which has led a large number of scientists to call for new rules regarding the outlandish practice. Chinese scientists have already admittedly inserted human stem cells into goat fetuses, and United States researchers have actively researched the concept of engineering a mouse with human brain cells.

    Many experts are now speaking out against the announcement, including leading fertility experts and major organizations. John Smeaton, national director of the Society for the Protection of Unborn Children, said:

    “It is a further and very worrying step down the wrong road for humanity”

.     .     .

Genes thought to affect IQ might not

Oct. 2, 2012
Courtesy of
the Association for Psychological Science
and World Science staff

Most of the genes long thought to be linked to in­tel­li­gence, simply aren’t, a new study has con­cluded.

“We are not say­ing the peo­ple who did ear­li­er re­search in this ar­ea were fool­ish,” said Chris­to­pher Chabris, a psy­cho­log­i­cal sci­ent­ist at Un­ion Col­lege in New York who co-led the stu­dy. “They were us­ing the best tech­nol­o­gy and in­form­ati­on they had avail­able.”

Nor do Chabris and his col­leagues de­ny that in­tel­li­gence is he­red­i­tary and ge­net­ic. But they say it now turns out that this in­tan­gi­ble qual­ity is probably too com­plex to sum up in a few genes. It may be some time be­fore re­search­ers can iden­ti­fy in­tel­li­gence’s spe­cif­ic ge­net­ic roots, say the re­search­ers, whose find­ings are pub­lished on­line in the re­search jour­nal Psy­cho­log­i­cal Sci­ence.

Chabris and Da­vid Laib­son, a Har­vard econ­o­mist, led an in­tern­ati­onal team of re­search­ers that an­a­lyzed a doz­en genes us­ing large da­ta sets that in­clud­ed both in­tel­li­gence test­ing and ge­net­ic da­ta. In nearly eve­ry case, the re­search­ers found that in­tel­li­gence could not be linked to the spe­cif­ic genes tested.

“We only found one gene that ap­peared to be as­so­ci­at­ed with in­tel­li­gence, and it was a very small ef­fect. This does not mean in­tel­li­gence does not have a ge­net­ic com­po­nent. It means it’s a lot harder to find the par­tic­u­lar genes, or the par­tic­u­lar ge­net­ic vari­ants, that in­flu­ence the dif­fer­ences in in­tel­li­gence,” said Chabris.

It had long been be­lieved, on the ba­sis of stud­ies of iden­ti­cal and fra­ter­nal twins, that in­tel­li­gence was a her­it­a­ble trait. The new re­search af­firms that conclusi­on. But old­er stud­ies that pick­ed out spe­cif­ic genes had flaws, Chabris said, pri­marily be­cause of tech­no­log­i­cal lim­its that pre­vented re­search­ers from prob­ing more than a few loc­ati­ons in the hu­man ge­nome to find genes that af­fect­ed in­tel­li­gence.

Al­so, “at the time, it was be­lieved that in­di­vid­ual genes would have a much larg­er ef­fect — they were ex­pect­ing to find genes that might each ac­count for sev­er­al IQ points,” Chabris ex­plained. IQ is a wide­spread meas­ure of in­tel­li­gence in which av­er­age in­tel­li­gence is scored as 100, while high­er or low­er in­tel­li­gence are scored high­er or low­er. The score is meant to mea­sure a per­son’s in­tel­li­gence as com­pared to the av­er­age for their age group, as a per­cent­age.

Chabris said additi­onal re­search is needed to de­ter­mine the ex­act role genes play in in­tel­li­gence.

“As is the case with oth­er traits, like height, there are probably thou­sands of genes and their vari­ants that are as­so­ci­at­ed with in­tel­li­gence,” he said. “And there may be oth­er ge­net­ic ef­fects be­yond the sin­gle gene ef­fects. There could be interacti­ons among genes, or interacti­ons be­tween genes and the en­vi­ron­ment. Our re­sults show that the way re­search­ers have been look­ing for genes that may be re­lat­ed to in­tel­li­gence — the ‘can­di­date gene’ meth­od — is fairly likely to re­sult in false pos­i­tives, so oth­er meth­ods should be used.”



DNA molecules can ‘teleport’, Nobel Prize winner claims

Experiment spots spooky quantum imprinting effect

A Nobel Prize winning biologist has ignited controversy after publishing details of an experiment in which a fragment of DNA appeared to ‘teleport’ or imprint itself between test tubes.

According to a team headed by Luc Montagnier, previously known for his work on HIV and AIDS, two test tubes, one of which contained a tiny piece of bacterial DNA, the other pure water, were surrounded by a weak electromagnetic field of 7Hz.

Eighteen hours later, after DNA amplification using a polymerase chain reaction, as if by magic the DNA was detectable in the test tube containing pure water.

Oddly, the original DNA sample had to be diluted many times over for the experiment to work, which might explain why the phenomenon has not been detected before, assuming that this is what has happened.

The phenomenon might be very loosely described as ‘teleportation’ except that the bases project or imprint themselves across space rather than simply moving from one place to another.

To be on the safe side, Montagnier then compared the results with controls in which the time limit was lowered, no electromagnetic field was present or was present but at lower frequencies, and in which both tubes contained pure water. On every one of these, he drew a blank.

The possible quantum effect – the apparent imprinting of the DNA on the water – is not in itself the most contentious element of the experiment, so much as the relatively long timescales over which it appears to manifest itself. Quantum phenomena are assumed to show their faces in imperceptible fractions of a second and not seconds minutes and hours, and usually at very low temperatures approaching absolute zero.

Revealing a process through which biology might display the underlying ‘quantumness’ of nature at room temperature would be startling.

Montagnier’s experiment will have to be repeated by others to have any hope of being taken seriously. So far, some scientists have been publically incredulous.

“It is hard to understand how the information can be stored within water over a timescale longer than picoseconds,” said the Ruhr University in Bochum’s Klaus Gerwert, quoted by New Scientist magazine, which broke the story (requires registration).

What does all of this mean? It could be that the propagation of life is able to make use of the quantum nature of reality to project itself in subtle ways, as has been hinted at in previous experiments. Alternatively, it could be that life itself is a complex projection of these quantum phenomena and utterly depends on them in ways not yet understood because they are incredibly hard to detect.

Speculatively, (and Montagnier doesn’t directly suggest anything so unsubstantiated), it could also be the little-understood quantum properties of the water molecule and not just its more obvious chemical bonding properties that gives it such a central role in the bio-engineering of life-forms. Water might be a good medium in which DNA can copy itself using processes that hint at quantum entanglement and ‘teleportation’ (our term).

Montagnier’s paper goes on to discuss the phenomenon he claims to have uncovered using ‘quantum field theory’ within the context of his personal interest, disease propagation.


Dr. Rupert Sheldrake-The Science Delusion

September 16, 2012 2 comments

The Newest book by Rupert Sheldrake, Ph.D.

E.I.R.S. has teamed up with Dr. Rupert Sheldrake in our efforts of understanding the elements of consciousness in science today. Please take a moment to view this section in which through words, books, and videos he explains what the years of work and academic research has led him to understand in the science of consciousness and why he calls it “The Science Delusion“.

Rupert Sheldrake is a biologist and author of more than 80 scientific papers and ten books. A former Research Fellow of the Royal Society, he studied natural sciences at Cambridge University, where he was a Scholar of Clare College, took a double first class honours degree and was awarded the University Botany Prize. He then studied philosophy and history of science at Harvard University, where he was a Frank Knox Fellow, before returning to Cambridge, where he took a Ph.D. in biochemistry. He was a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, where he was Director of Studies in biochemistry and cell biology. As the Rosenheim Research Fellow of the Royal Society, he carried out research on the development of plants and the ageing of cells in the Department of Biochemistry at Cambridge University.

From 2005-2010 he was the Director of the Perrott-Warrick Project, funded from Trinity College,Cambridge. He is also a Fellow of the Institute of Noetic Sciences, near San Francisco, and a Visiting Professor and Academic Director of the Holistic Thinking Program at the Graduate Institute in Connecticut.
He lives in London with his wife Jill Purce and two sons.

He has appeared in many TV programs in Britain and overseas, and was one of the participants (along with Stephen Jay Gould, Daniel Dennett, Oliver Sacks, Freeman Dyson and Stephen Toulmin) in a TV series called A Glorious Accident, shown on PBS channels throughout the US. He has often taken part in BBC and other radio programmes. He has written for newspapers such as theGuardian, where he had a regular monthly column, The Times, Sunday Telegraph, Daily Mirror, Daily Mail, Sunday Times, Times Educational Supplement, Times Higher Education Supplement and Times Literary Supplement, and has contributed to a variety of magazines, including New Scientist, Resurgence, the Ecologist and the Spectator.

Morphic Fields and Cosmic Consciousness

Buy US Books   ¦   Buy British Books   ¦   Buy Books in Other Languages

Buy Video Tapes 

Buy Audio Tapes 

If you would like to learn more… Rupert’s Autobiography

The Santa Fe incident, April 2nd 2008 News Links

The Extended Mind: Recent Experimental Evidence

The Afterlife Investigations 1 – Rupert Sheldrake, PhD

Rupert Sheldrake invites you to participate in his ongoing research. No previous experience is necessary, and the online tests can be done immediately. Most of these experiments are suitable for use in schools and colleges, and some make an excellent basis for student projects.

Online Tests


Audio Anticipation test 
Can you feel which of 4 audio samples you are about to hear? Try this new test, which takes less than 6 minutes, and is fun to do.

The Telephone Telepathy Test A telephone telepathy test that works on mobile phones. Two people you know well serve as your contacts. There are two versions of the test, one for the UK and the other for North America.

In this test you and one other person see a series of pictures for 20 seconds each, and at the same time hear some music. Depending on a randomizer, in some trials your partner is shown the same picture and hears the same music as you; in others, you see a different picture and hear different music. At the end of each 20-second period both of you guess whether the other person has been looking at the same picture or not. This test takes about 5 minutes.

  The Photo Telepathy Test

Can you feel when someone is looking at your photo and thinking about you? Try this test to find out. You need one or two other people, preferably people you know well. The test takes less than 5 minutes. You will need to upload a digital photograph when registering.

  The Online Staring Test
This new experiment enables you to participate online in research on the Extended Mind. The results of your experiment are transmitted automatically to be recorded in the database. This test takes about 4 minutes.All you need is a co-researcher and you can start straightaway!

Related Links

Scientific Research Overview 
Results of Experiments
Appeals for Information
Relevant Papers

Rupert Sheldrake Lecture: The Science Delusion from Rupert Sheldrake on Vimeo.

Researching Telepathic and Psychic Phenomena

All of the information here has been pulled either off of Youtube, or his website which is where there is much more in depth information about himself and his research. I suggest everyone at least check out his website and pick up his latest book “Science Set Free” (US) or “The Science Delusion” (UK) where he compiles all his years of knowledge and research. Well worth it!

Here is a list of books by Dr. Rupert Sheldrake:

Books USA & Canada

US Books from Amazon
To buy books in… UK and Ireland 

book cover
Dogs That Know When Their Owners Are Coming Home
And Other Unexplained Powers of Animals: An Investigation 

By Rupert Sheldrake

New Edition Barnes & Noble announce a new edition of Dogs That Know When Their Owners Are Coming Home, You can order now by clicking on the link below:
Order New Edition from Barnes & Noble

Many people who have ever owned a pet will swear that their dog or cat or other animal has exhibited some kind of behavior they just can’t explain. How does a dog know when its owner is returning home at an unexpected time?
Filled with captivating stories and thought-provoking analysis, Dogs That Know When Their Owners Are Coming Home is a groundbreaking exploration of animal behavior that will profoundly change the way we think about animals, and ourselves. After five years of extensive research involving thousands of people who own and work with animals, Sheldrake conclusively proves what many pet owners already know – that there is a strong connection between humans and animals that lies beyond present-day scientific understanding.

book cover
Morphic Resonance 
By Rupert Sheldrake

Rupert’s book A New Science of Life was re-published in America in October 2009 in a completely revised new edition, with an update on research on morphic resonance. Conventional scientific theories cannot explain certain phenomena. For instance, when laboratory rats have learned a new maze, rats elsewhere seem to learn it more easily. Rupert Sheldrake describes this process as morphic resonance, in which the forms and behaviours of the past shape living organisms in the present.
Challenging the fundamental assumptions of modern science, this ground-breaking radical hypothesis suggests that nature itself has memory. The question of morphogenesis – how things take their shape – remains one of the great mysteries of science. What makes a rabbit rabbit-shaped? How do newts regenerate limbs? Why are molecules shaped the way they are? Why do societies arrange themselves in certain predictable patterns?
According to Sheldrake’s hypothesis of formative causation, these questions remain unanswered in part because convention is hobbled by the reductionist assumption that finding the answers to such questions is largely a matter of figuring out the machinery of nature, of getting to the bottom of an ultimately mechanical universe. But Sheldrake suggests that nature is not a machine and that each kind of system – from crystals to birds to societies – is shaped not by universal laws that embrace and direct all systems but by a unique “morphic field” containing a collective or pooled memory. So organisms not only share genetic material with others of their species, but are also shaped by a “field” specific to that species.
Order Morphic Resonance

book cover
Sheldrake and his Critics: The sense of being glared at. 
by Rupert Sheldrake and Anthony Freeman (Editor)

A special edition of the Journal of Consciousness Studies (JCS Vol 12 No. 6, 2005) in paperback format
In 1981 Rupert Sheldrake outraged the scientific establishment with his hypothesis of morphic resonance. Subsequently he devoted his research to pioneering science, winning popular acclaim and continued establishment approbium with a series of ground-breaking works. In this special edition of JCS Rupert summarises his case for the ‘non-visual detection of staring’. His claims are scrutinised by fourteen critics, to whom Rupert then responds.
Order Sheldrake and his Critics

book cover The Evolutionary Mind
Conversations on Science, Imagination & Spirit
by Rupert Sheldrake, Terence McKenna & Ralph Abraham
Published by Monkfish Book Publishing Company

A jam-session of the mind, an intellectual movable feast…… Stimulating and often startling discussions between three friends, all highly original thinkers: Rupert Sheldrake, controversial biologist, Terence McKenna, psychedelic visionary, and Ralph Abraham, chaos mathematician. Breaking out of paradigms that retard our evolution and exploring new possibilities, they venture where few have gone before taking their readers on an exciting journey of discovery.
Order the Paperback editionThe Evolutionary Mind 

Book Review…The Evolutionary Mind

book cover The Sense of Being Stared At
by Rupert Sheldrake

In his latest book, biologist Rupert Sheldrake explores the intricacies of the mind and discovers that our perceptive abilities are stronger than many of us could have imagined. Most of us know it well – the almost physical sensation that we are the object of someone’s attention. Is the feeling all in our head? And what about related phenomena, such as telepathy and premonitions? Are they merely subjective beliefs? Basing his conclusions on years of intense research, Sheldrake argues persuasively in this compelling, innovative book that such phenomena are real.
Order the Paperback editionThe Sense of Being Stared At 

Book Review…The Sense of Being Stared At

>book cover
Seven Experiments That Could Change the World:
A Do-It-Yourself Guide to Revolutionary Science

by Rupert Sheldrake

Rupert Sheldrake’s groundbreaking book examines unexplained natural phenomena and suggests explanations that push the boundaries of science. How does your pet know when you are coming home? How do pigeons home? Can people really feel a “phantom” amputated arm? These questions and more form the basis of Sheldrake’s look at the world of contemporary science as he puts some of the most cherished assumptions of established science to the test. New edition with results update.
Order Seven Experiments that Could Change the World

amazon book logo
A Glorious Accident:
Understanding Our Place in the Cosmic Puzzle

by Wim Kayzer

“Through no fault of our own, and by dint of no cosmic plan or conscious purpose, we have become, by the power of a glorious evolutionary accident called intelligence, the stewards of life’s continuity on earth. We did not ask for this role, but we cannot abjure it. We may not be suited to such responsibility, but here we are.” – Stephen Jay Gould, The Flamingo’s Smile.
At the close of the 20th century, what do we know about why we are here, on this planet, in this universe? To address this and other big questions, journalist Wim Kayzer invited a diverse cast of six of today’s great scientific thinkers to discuss, debate, and argue their points. The result was the acclaimed public television series, A Glorious Accident, now edited and available in paperback.
Order A Glorious Accident

amazon book logo Chaos, Creativity and Cosmic Consciousness
Ralph Abraham, Terence McKenna and Rupert Sheldrake
(First published as Trialogues at the Edge of the West)

Explore the relationships between chaos, creativity, and imagination, and their connection to the soul of the world. Join Ralph Abraham, mathematician and leader in the new science of chaos, Terence McKenna, shamanologist and ethno-pharmcologist, and Rupert Sheldrake, acclaimed biologist and originator of the theory of morphogenetic fields, as they “trialogue” on such questions as: How can chaos contribute to our lives? Is Armageddon a self-fulfilling prophecy? How can scientists and mystics share the same planet?
Chaos, Creativity and Cosmic Consciousness challenges us to the deepest levels of thought as it calls into question our current views of reality, morality, and the nature of life in the universe.
Order Chaos, Creativity and Cosmic Consciousness

amazon book logo<
Natural Grace:
Dialogues on Creation, Darkness, and the Soul in Spirituality and Science 

By Rupert Sheldrake and Matthew Fox

The chasm between science and religion has been a source of intellectual and spiritual tension for centuries, but in these ground breaking dialogues there is a remarkable consonance between these once opposing camps. In Natural Grace, Rupert Sheldrake and Matthew Fox show that not only is the synthesis of science and spirituality possible, but it is unavoidable when one considers the extraordinary insights they have both come upon in their work. Sheldrake, who has changed the face of modern science with his revolutionary theory of morphic resonance, and Fox, whose work in creation spirituality has had a significant impact on people’s sense of spirit, balance each other with their unique yet highly complementary points of view. In these inspired dialogues a variety of ancient topics – including ritual, prayer, and the soul – are freed from the past and given new power for the future in the liberated universe Fox and Sheldrake show us.
Order Natural Grace

amazon book logo A New Science of Life:
The Hypothesis of Morphic Resonance

By Rupert Sheldrake

Why do many phenomena defy the explanations of conventional biology and physics? For instance, when laboratory rats in one place have learned how to navigate a new maze, why do rats elsewhere in the world seem to learn it more easily? Rupert Sheldrake describes this process as morphic resonance: the past forms and behaviors of organisms, he argues, influence organisms in the present through direct connections across time and space. Calling into question many of our fundamental concepts about life and consciousness, Sheldrake reinterprets the regularities of nature as being more like habits than immutable laws.
Order A New Science of Life

Micro-Gravity Using Sound Waves

September 16, 2012 Leave a comment

Acoustic Levitation Video Shows Liquid Droplets Floating On Sound Waves In Midair

Acoustic Levitation

Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory have discovered a way to use sound waves to levitate individual droplets of solutions.

From Argonne Labs comes this intriguing video demonstrating the acoustic levitation of liquids on a piece of equipment developed for NASA to simulate microgravity conditions.

The acoustic levitator uses two small speakers to generate sound waves at frequencies slightly above the audible range – roughly 22 kilohertz. When the top and bottom speakers are precisely aligned, they create two sets of sound waves that perfectly interfere with each other, setting up a phenomenon known as a standing wave.

At certain points along a standing wave, known as nodes, there is no net transfer of energy at all. Because the acoustic pressure from the sound waves is sufficient to cancel the effect of gravity, light objects are able to levitate when placed at the nodes. These drops of solution remain suspended for a long period of time, thanks to the vibrational force of sound waves that keep them stationary in an air column. (Photo by Dan Harris)

To learn more how it might be used to develop pharmaceuticals, read more at Argonne’s website.

Argonne scientist Chris Benmore demonstrates his acoustic levitator, which could help to improve the efficiency and quality of pharmaceutical development. (Photo by Dan Harris)

Argonne National Laboratory seeks solutions to pressing national problems in science and technology. The nation’s first national laboratory, Argonne conducts leading-edge basic and applied scientific research in virtually every scientific discipline. Argonne researchers work closely with researchers from hundreds of companies, universities, and federal, state and municipal agencies to help them solve their specific problems, advance America’s scientific leadership and prepare the nation for a better future. With employees from more than 60 nations, Argonne is managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy‘sOffice of Science.

DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.  For more information, please visit


Jason Verbelli and Searl Technology

September 16, 2012 Leave a comment

Society member Jason Verbelli and Earths International would like to tell you about Searl Technology, but first E.I.R.S. would like to tell you a little bit about Jason Verbelli.

Jason Verbelli is a dynamic force behind the movement to provide mankind with Free energy. He has a passionate and informed perspective on this most fascinating and timely issue of crossing over from our dependency on non-sustainable forms of power into a whole new era of overunity power. Jason is a researcher in magnetism and a physics enthusiast.

You can find some amazing information on him and his work here: and here:

You can also check out His youtubes out here: and here:

Jason is part of the Searl Team and the work and research of all involved in this section will be updated soon!

Learn why the SEG is the global energy solution and the future paradigm shift.

Professor John R. R. Searl is the founder

of the Searl Effect Technology and the inventor of the Searl Effect Generator (SEG).

With our World in the midst of an emerging energy crisis along with massive and constant environmental damage from forest destruction to ever-increasing greenhouse gas emissions

of epic and catastrophic proportions,

Prof. John Searl offers a global solution that can harness economically clean, sustainable and unlimited renewable energy.


The Searl Effect

An SEG video animation of the innermost set of parts assembling.

The Searl Effect was discovered by John Roy Robert Searl in 1946.

Put simply, it is a method of extracting clean and sustainable electrical energy.

The SEG consists of three fixed stator rings that are uniquely magnetized with patterns setup to generate continual motion of similarly magnetized cylindrical rotors. The magnetic rotors or rollers consist of eight segmented components made of the same four layers of concentric materials that make up the stators. The rollers have both freedom of spin and rotation around the stator which generates both mechanical and electrical power.

The SEG is an ‘open system’ of energy conversion that is in accordance known thermodynamic laws; particularly as it may apply at the quantum level. The open energy cycle of the SEG enables it to function both as a prime mover of mechanical rotors, but more so as an electrical generator that continuously interacts and processes energy from the natural environment.

Incidental effects includes a halo of negative air ionization or plasma, vacuum by extreme electrical charge, cooling temperatures of both device and the local environment; also gravitational and inertial anomalies under specific conditions.

The Searl Effect is based on magnetic waveforms that generates a continual motion of magnetized rollers around magnetized rings.

Energy conversion while operating involves processing of random quantum fluctuations and kinetic energy within the atomic lattice into coherent currents of electron pairs formed between two-dimensional boundaries of different type materials. Therein between surface boundaries, the Quantum Hall Effect of a strong pulsing magnetic field are electron transformations (compression) that dramatically decreases the device temperature with increasing mean free paths (conductivity) due to the increase in fermion pair formations or bosons tunneling through all of the concentric material layers of the Searl Effect Generator.

Energy out of the environment is typically chaotic but pervasive at the quantum level and we all feel it in part as ambient temperatures, but this is just one source of ambient energy within the electromagnetic spectrum that is in a random state and is readily utilized by the SEG. It is in effect an unbiased solid state magnetic diode that can effectively turn ambient energy into asymmetrical electron motion out of randomness into a uniform state or non-random state of coherent currents, consisting of high velocity tunneling electrons pairs with photon like characteristics.

Searl Technology effectively utilizes quantum kinetic energy which involves the electron’s inherent ability to absorb and emit energy at the quantum level with an energy cycle that can could compared and explained in layman terms to the hydroelectric dam in principle since both are driven directly or indirectly by entropy of the sun’s radiant energy. A dam builds up potential and kinetic energy by way of cloud condensation that forms rain and fills reservoirs, but does so only after it has achieved a higher energy level by way of evaporation from ground levels. Whereas the SEG utilizes its layer of neodymium as a reservoir of electrons, Teflon layer is analogous to the dam itself, Magnetic layer as the power plant that makes useful work out of the currents and finally the copper layer that compares well to the water outlets that can be seen to jet out at the bottom of the dam; similarly the SEG ram-jets electrons out to the atmosphere. At this point, energy levels of the water jets or in the case of electrons, are kinetically reduced existing the system, but be mindful that these discharges go back to the environment to recharge. Therein, ambient energy restores their energy levels up by way of evaporation of water or as with the SEG, the uniform emission of electrons to the outside air exposes them to atmosphere’s ambient sources of energy or temperature which raises the electron’s quantum energy levels back up to natural ambient levels. Thereafter, the external sources of electrons are attracted back to the relatively positive potential of the electron depleted neodymium layer (reservoir) where the energy cycle continuously repeats. It is a process that effectively strips kinetic energy out the of electrons before they are emitted; no different in principle from the energy cycle of the hydroelectric dam where the kinetics of the water flow are harnessed. In this manner, both ways gather ambient sources of energy that can be processed and made useful for electrical applications.

The idea of utilizing unlimited sources of energy is the subject of various devices and experiments, most of which prove the existence of energy at the quantum level but not a method of creating a coherent and uniform flow of energy to produce useful electrical power. In contrast, John Searl discovered that in order to create a steady and stable flow, all the masses of the device (and the stimulating frequencies) must conform to precise values which are determined by a matrix of coherent numbers he calls the “Law of the Squares”. The SEG’s ability harness the electron’s kinetic energy itself is a unique achievement that represents a new technology working with the highest quality of energy that nature has to offer and it is clean, non-destructive, unlimited and all-pervading.

This all describes a constant source of energy that can be made to flow when the correctly proportioned masses concerned are stimulated by suitable magnetic field frequencies along with the appropriate generator design. The SEG is such a device, precisely constructed to these principles, enabling it to produce stable and useful electrical power that is scalable in size for output requirement.

The size of an SEG can range from the smallest design of about one meter in diameter of 15 kilowatt capacity (which is suitable for most households) to well over a megawatt. They can be setup in tandem to make up a power plant to supply the electrical needs of an entire city.

The Searl Technology has all the hallmarks of a world-class solution for today’s energy needs and it is expected to be the dominant form of energy production of the future.

SEG Progress Update


Adding SMI research capabillites is an essential measuring microscope complete with digital imaging. Brad Lockerman visits to document current SEG redevelopment progress this video update clip, click on the picture or at:


Jason Verbelli visits Searl Magnetics Headquarters

Dr. Robert Schoch and Alternative Human History

September 16, 2012 1 comment


E.I.R.S. has teamed up with Geologist and University Professor Dr. Robert Schoch in our research efforts of Alternative World History. Our true human history is slowly coming to discovery through the extensive researches of geologists and geophysicists like Robert Schoch. Evidence points to civilizations existing thousands of years beyond what our school books say they do. Here, together with E.I.R.S., Dr. Schoch explains a very important message we both would like to share about what his 20+ years of research has discovered and why it is so important for us to know today.

Göbekli Tepe in Turkey, Its Connection to the Great Sphinx of Egypt, and the End of the Last Ice Age: A Warning for Us Today

Twenty years ago, based on his geological analyses, Dr. Robert Schoch concluded that the oldest portion of the Great Sphinx of Egypt dates back thousands of years earlier than the traditional archaeological attribution of circa 2500 BCE. Egyptologists were outraged, saying such an early date was impossible because there was no evidence of sophisticated culture prior to circa 3500 BCE.

Now there is new and dramatic evidence that supports Dr. Schoch’s original thesis; found in Turkey, it is a site known as Göbekli Tepe. Constructed of magnificently carved 10- to 15-ton stone pillars that are astronomically oriented, the site shows incredible sophistication yet dates back to nearly 10,000 BCE, overturning all our assumptions about the origins of civilization. Furthermore, the site was intentionally buried circa 8,000 BCE, but why? Dr. Schoch’s new theory involves both meteoritic bombardments and plasma outbursts from the Sun, which brought the last ice age to an abrupt end during Göbekli Tepe times. Such events could occur again; we may be overdue.

Dr. Robert Schoch, a full-time faculty member at the College of General Studies at Boston University since 1984, earned his Ph.D. in Geology and Geophysics at Yale University. Dr. Schoch has been quoted extensively in the media for his pioneering research on ancient cultures and monuments in such diverse countries as Egypt, Turkey, Bosnia, Romania, Wales, Scotland, Mexico, Peru, Chile (Easter Island), and Japan. Dr. Schoch’s work has been instrumental in spurring renewed attention to the interrelationships between geological and astronomical phenomena, natural catastrophes, and the early history of civilization. Dr. Schoch has appeared on many radio and television shows and is featured in the Emmy-winning documentary The Mystery of the Sphinx which first aired on NBC. He is the author and coauthor of several books, both technical and popular, including Voyages of the Pyramid Builders, Pyramid Quest, and the university textbook Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions.

Article Source:

Below is an explanation of the role that our sun played in the changing of our last ice age by Dr. Robert Schoch taken off of his official website

Plasma, Solar Outbursts, and the End of the Last Ice Age

15,000 to 11,000 years ago Earth experienced a series of climatic fluctuations. It had been extremely cold, with continental glaciers extending much further than they do today, but the climate started to warm. However, temperatures suddenly reverted back and there was a short cold spell, known as the Younger Dryas, before the final warming and the official end of the last ice age.

heinrich harder rendering of ice age and mastodon

Based on Greenland ice core data, the Younger Dryas began and ended very abruptly. Its start dates to 10,900 B.C., and its ending (the final warming) began circa 9700 B.C. and may have occurred within an incredible three years; given our inability to resolve the finest details of something that happened so long ago, it may have literally happened overnight.

image of solar flare

How do we explain this pattern of abrupt climatic shifts? I once hypothesized that comets were responsible. A comet hitting the land or a shallow ocean, or exploding above the land’s surface, scattering dust and debris into the atmosphere, would cause global cooling. Although the initial strike would happen in a flash, it would take some years for the cooling to reach its full extent. This pattern fits well with the cooling at 10,900 B.C. and there is evidence of a cometary explosion over North America at this time.

picture of a modern sprite

What about the warming event of circa 9700 B.C.? In years past I speculated that comets hitting deep oceans were responsible. A comet might break the thin oceanic crust, releasing heat from the hot magma beneath. Vaporized and displaced water would rain down on Earth, and tsunamis would wash across coastal areas, warming the planet. But even with a comet, or a series of comets, bombarding the oceans, could the warming happen as quickly as the Greenland ice cores indicate? I think not. But if not comets, what?

picture of rongorongotablet and detail

Oddly, the indigenous Easter Island rongorongo script may hold the answer. But first we have to consider the concept of the fourth state of matter–plasma. Plasma consists of electrically charged particles. Familiar plasma phenomena on Earth today include lightning and auroras, the northern and southern lights, and upper atmospheric phenomena known as sprites. In the past, much more powerful plasma events sometimes took place, due to solar outbursts and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun, or possibly emissions from other celestial objects. Powerful plasma phenomena could cause strong electrical discharges to hit Earth, burning and incinerating materials on our planet’s surface. Los Alamos plasma physicist Dr. Anthony L. Peratt and his associates have established that petroglyphs found worldwide record an intense plasma event (or events) in prehistory.

illustration of peratt plasma studies and petroglyphs in comparison to the rongorongo shapes

Plasma and petroglyph illustrations courtesy of Dr. Anthony L. Peratt, used with permission. Source: Anthony L. Peratt, “Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity”, IEEE [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers] Transactions on Plasma Science, December 2003, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1192-1214.

Dr. Peratt determined that powerful plasma phenomena observed in the skies would take on characteristic shapes resembling humanoid figures, humans with bird heads, sets of rings or donut shapes, and writhing snakes or serpents–shapes reflected in countless ancient petroglyphs. The Easter Island rongorongo script, recorded on antique wooden tablets, is composed of similar shapes as the petroglyphs. Studying them in detail (inspired by my wife, Catherine Ulissey, who first noticed the connection), I concluded that the Easter Island rongorongo tablets (the surviving tablets are copies of copies of copies . . . .) record a major plasma event in the skies thousands of years ago. This, I believe, was the event that brought a final close to the last ice age.

illustration of peratt plasma studies and petroglyphs in comparison to the rongorongo shapes

Plasma hitting the surface of Earth could heat and fuse rock, incinerate flammable materials, melt ice caps, vaporize shallow bodies of water creating an extended deluge of rain, and send the climate into a warming spell. The release of pressure that follows the melting of thousands-of-meters-thick ice sheets can induce earthquakes and even cause hot rock under pressure to melt and erupt to the surface as volcanoes. The world was in chaos, and this is the event recorded by petroglyphs and the rongorongo texts.

illustration of peratt plasma studies and petroglyphs in comparison to the rongorongo shapes

The plasma event of 9700 B.C. eradicated advanced civilizations and high cultures of the time, and the radiation emanating from the plasma may have affected mental and psychical abilities. This could be the basis for the nearly universal myth of a Golden Age, a time when beings on Earth had mental abilities far surpassing those of later times. The 9700 B.C. event may be the original basis for the Atlantis legends; the timeframe fits well with Plato’s account.

picture of the rongorongo shapes in comparison to the nazca formations

Rongorongo glyphs and Easter Island petroglyph (lower line) in comparison to the Nazca geoglyphs (upper line).

Plasma and electrical discharges hitting the surface of Earth may have been responsible for the vitrification (melting into crude glass) of ancient stone structures seen in some parts of the world, such as various hill forts in Scotland (to the right are some photos showing vitrification at an ancient Scottish hill fort, along with the ground plan of such a fort–the vitrification is shown by the dark shading). People cowered for their lives; they sought shelter in caves, under cliffs, in dwellings built of thick stone or carved into mountainsides. Perhaps Göbekli Tepe was intentionally buried in an attempt to protect it from on-going plasma events, as I suggest in my new book. Humankind was thrown into a dark age for thousands of years, only to reemerge (amidst megalithic monuments belonging to a much earlier period) with scattered memories and nascent abilities.

picture of vitrified rock from the mote of mark

– – – – –

picture of vitrified fort carradale scotland

Since February 2010 — I have been publicly speaking and writing about the theories presented on this page. I have a new book covering these issues and much more, Forgotten Civilization: The Role of Solar Outbursts in Our Past and Future, available for pre-order from In the meantime, if you find these ideas interesting, you might want to take a look at three articles I wrote for the Australian magazine New Dawn. (The links below are to PDFs of each article.) They are titled:

“An Ancient Warning, A Global Message, From the End of the Last Ice Age”

“The Mystery of Göbekli Tepe and Its Message to Us”

“Glass Castles & Fire from the Sky: A New Theory of Vitrification”

image of robert schoch examining vitrified rock at the mote of mark

If you care to find out what geology all over the world is telling us, then check out his new book here:

The knowledge and 20+ years of research in it far surpasses the cost.

Below is a video mostly supposed to entice tourism to Turkey, but it has alot of great info with Dr. Schoch and the significance our true world history.

Now here is an hour long interview withDr. Robert Schoch explaining his views and theories of our worlds true history

.     .     .

Evidences of Alternative Human History


Old tools — and poison — push back Stone Age  20,000 years

New analysis of artifacts from cave in South Africa helps fill gap in human civilization

Courtesy Paola Villa, University of Colorado

Border Cave in South Africa was occupied by humans for tens of thousands of years.
By Stephanie Pappas

The late Stone Age may have had an earlier start in Africa than previously thought — by some 20,000 years.

A new analysis of artifacts from a cave in South Africa reveals that the residents were carving bone tools, using pigments, making beads and even using poison 44,000 years ago. These sorts of artifacts had previously been linked to the San culture, which was thought to have emerged around 20,000 years ago.

“Our research proves that the Later Stone Age emerged in South Africa far earlier than has been believed and occurred at about the same time as the arrival of modern humans in Europe,” study researcher Paola Villa, a curator at the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History, said in a statement.

The Later Stone Age in Africa occurred at the same time as Europe’s Upper Paleolithic Period, when modern humans moved into Europe from Africa and met the Neanderthals about 45,000 years ago.

“(T)he differences in technology and culture between the two areas are very strong, showing the people of the two regions chose very different paths to the evolution of technology and society,” Villa said. [ 10 Mysteries of the First Humans ]

Image courtesy of Francesco d’Errico and Lucinda Backwell

Tools and beads found at Border Cave, South Africa, date back as far as 40,000 years.

Hints of culture
Traces of civilization have been found going back nearly 80,000 years in Africa, but these fragments — bone tools, carved beads — vanish from the archaeological record by about 60,000 years ago.

In fact, almost nothing is known about what happened in Southern Africa between 40,000 and 20,000 years ago, Villa and his colleagues wrote online Monday in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. This gap makes it hard to link middle-Stone Age societies to the ones that came later.

The researchers brought the latest in dating technology to bear on a site on the border of South Africa and Swaziland called Border Cave. They found that a number of the artifacts in the cave were much older than expected. [ See Amazing Cave Photos ]

Ostrich eggshell beads, sharp bone points likely used for arrowheads, and notched bones were among the fragments of life dating back thousands of years before the San were thought to have emerged. One long-bone tool is decorated with a spiral incision that was then filled with red-clay pigment. A set of warthog or pig tusks shows signs of grinding and scraping. Other bones are marked with notches, as if they were used to keep a tally of something.

The researchers also found beads, several apparently deliberately blackened by fire, one dating back more than 38,000 years. A piece of wood associated with a stone with a hole through it was dated to about 35,000 years ago. The tool appears to be an early digging stick of the sort used by the later San people to unearth roots and termite larvae.

Oldest poison
The researchers also dated a lump of beeswax mixed with toxic resin that was likely used to haft, or attach, stone points to the shafts of arrows or spears. The beeswax dates to about 35,000 years ago, making it the oldest known example of beeswax being used as a tool.

Finally, researchers dated a thin wooden stick scarred with perpendicular scratches. A chemical analysis revealed traces of ricinoleic acid, a natural poison found in castor beans. It’s likely that the stick was an applicator used to put poison on an arrow or spearheads, the archaeologists reported. At about 20,000 years old, the applicator marks the first use of poison ever discovered.

“The very thin bone points from the Later Stone Age at Border Cave are good evidence for bow and arrow use,” Villa said. “The work by d’Errico and colleagues (published alongside Villa’s group’s report in the same journal) shows that the points are very similar in width and thickness to the bone points produced by San culture that occupied the region in prehistoric times, whose people were known to use bows and arrows with poison-tipped bone points as a way to bring down medium and large-sized herbivores.”

The ancient dates help fill in a continuity gap of human civilization, said study researcher Lucinda Backwell, a researcher in palaeoanthropology at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa.

“The dating and analysis of archaeological material discovered at Border Cave in South Africa has allowed us to demonstrate that many elements of material culture that characterize the lifestyle of San hunter-gatherers in southern Africa were part of the culture and technology of the inhabitants of this site 44,000 years ago,” Backwell said.

It seems plausible that these technologies arose 50,000 to 60,000 years ago in Africa and later spread to Europe, Villa said.



Pottery 20,000 years old found in a Chinese cave –

BEIJING (AP) – Pottery fragments found in a south China cave have been confirmed to be 20,000 years old, making them the oldest known pottery in the world, archaeologists say.

The findings, which will appear in the journal Science on Friday, add to recent efforts that have dated pottery piles in east Asia to more than 15,000 years ago, refuting conventional theories that the invention of pottery correlates to the period about 10,000 years ago when humans moved from being hunter-gathers to farmers.

The research by a team of Chinese and American scientists also pushes the emergence of pottery back to the last ice age, which might provide new explanations for the creation of pottery, said Gideon Shelach, chair of the Louis Frieberg Center for East Asian Studies at The Hebrew University in Israel.

“The focus of research has to change,” Shelach, who is not involved in the research project in China, said by telephone.

In an accompanying Science article, Shelach wrote that such research efforts “are fundamental for a better understanding of socio-economic change (25,000 to 19,000 years ago) and the development that led to the emergency of sedentary agricultural societies.”

He said the disconnection between pottery and agriculture as shown in east Asia might shed light on specifics of human development in the region.

Wu Xiaohong, professor of archaeology and museology at Peking University and the lead author of the Science article that details the radiocarbon dating efforts, told The Associated Press that her team was eager to build on the research.

“We are very excited about the findings. The paper is the result of efforts done by generations of scholars,” Wu said. “Now we can explore why there was pottery in that particular time, what were the uses of the vessels, and what role they played in the survival of human beings.”

The ancient fragments were discovered in the Xianrendong cave in south China’s Jiangxi province, which was excavated in the 1960s and again in the 1990s, according to the journal article.

Wu, a chemist by training, said some researchers had estimated that the pieces could be 20,000 years old, but that there were doubts.

“We thought it would be impossible because the conventional theory was that pottery was invented after the transition to agriculture that allowed for human settlement.”

But by 2009, the team — which includes experts from Harvard and Boston universities — was able to calculate the age of the pottery fragments with such precision that the scientists were comfortable with their findings, Wu said.

“The key was to ensure the samples we used to date were indeed from the same period of the pottery fragments,” she said.

That became possible when the team was able to determine the sediments in the cave were accumulated gradually without disruption that might have altered the time sequence, she said.

Scientists took samples, such as bones and charcoal, from above and below the ancient fragments in the dating process, Wu said.

“This way, we can determine with precision the age of the fragments, and our results can be recognized by peers,” Wu said.

Shelach said he found the process done by Wu’s team to be meticulous and that the cave had been well protected throughout the research.

The same team in 2009 published an article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in which they determined the pottery fragments found in south China’s Hunan province to be 18,000 years old, Wu said.

“The difference of 2,000 years might not be significant in itself, but we always like to trace everything to its earliest possible time,” Wu said. “The age and location of pottery fragments help us set up a framework to understand the dissemination of the artifacts and the development of human civilization.”


World Mysteries: The Voynich Manuscript

September 16, 2012 Leave a comment

Voynich Manuscript

Theories abound about the origin and nature of the manuscript. Some believe it was meant to be a pharmacopoeia, to address topics in medieval or early modern medicine. Many of the pictures of herbs and plants hint that it many have been some kind of textbook for an alchemist. The fact that many diagrams appear to be of astronomical origin, combined with the unidentifiable biological drawings, has even led some fanciful theorists to propose that the book may have an alien origin.
One thing most theorists agree on is that the book is unlikely to be a hoax, given the amount of time, money and detail that would have been required to make it.

While I may not agree with Prof. Gordon Rugg and his theory, the video below has alot of info:

Here is every page in the book: