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August 1, 2014 3 comments


Scientists Discover Dozens of Monuments Hidden Below Stonehenge


Scientists have new evidence that there is more to Stonehenge — the ancient rock formations that stand alone in a field in Wiltshire, England — than meets the eye.

Based on cutting edge digital mapping technology, researchers at the University of Birmingham working as part of The Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project have discovered a treasure trove of new findings buried beneath the stones themselves.

According to the University, the new discoveries include 17 temples, burial mounds, shrines, and massive prehistoric pits that experts say appear to form astrological alignments. Many of the findings,  such as a large timber temple that was likely used to treat and bury the dead, are even older than the prehistoric monument above them, which is dated to 3,100 BCE.

Scientists noted that the number of structures fundamentally alters the modern perception of Stonehenge from a single monolith to a sprawling complex that was occupied by a large number of people. One of the project leaders, Professor Vincent Gaffney, who is Chair in Landscape Archaeology and Geomatics at the University of Birmingham also indicated that the most recent discovery is likely only the tip of a massive archeological iceberg.

Despite Stonehenge being the most iconic of all prehistoric monuments and occupying one of the richest archaeological landscapes in the world, much of this landscape in effect remains terra incognita.”

Using radar technology developed at the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute in Vienna, teams of researchers have spent years gathering images from around Stonehenge. According to the institute’s Director Professor Wolfgang Neubauer, the techniques used in the discovery will likely be employed in future archeological research.

The developments of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (LBI ArchPro) offer Europe the opportunity to carry out fundamental archaeological research at a scale and precision never previously attempted.”

Meanwhile for something was erected over 4,000 years ago, Stonehenge has certainly seen its fair share of news of late. On his trip back from the NATO Summit in Wales last week, President Obama made his own impromptu trip to the site.


Harnessing solar power through the looking glass

Researchers from Michigan State University have developed a new solar energy concentrator that, unlike previously constructed luminescent solar panels, does not tint the color of the sunlight shining through it.

An advantage of transparent solar technology is that, while less efficient at its current stage of development, users will reduce the load of lighting in their current household or workplace, according to Richard Lunt, professor of chemical engineering and materials science at Michigan State University.

“If you’re sitting in front of a window, one of the things you might notice is that the level of transparency is very high,” Lunt said.

Lunt explained that while there is a lot of energy in the visible part of the light spectrum, the infrared component not visible to the human eye actually makes up more than two-thirds of sunlight. By constructing a transparent concentrator specifically designed to pick up only non-visible wavelengths of light, the potential amount of electricity generated is only reduced by one-third. This is because visible light is allowed to pass through the glass without being captured and converted into electricity.

“If you consider covering a window with [opaque] photovoltaic solar paneling, you’d be converting light to energy at a loss,” Lunt said. “You’d be using some of that power to then power the lighting inside of the home or office, whereas if you made it transparent and let all of the light shine through, you’d get 100 percent lighting efficiency.”

The trade-off between designing buildings that use solar cell panels instead of windows is that while the opaque solar cell panels generate more energy, no natural light passes through them, according to Amanda Smeigh, program manager at the Solar Fuels Institute and a Ph. D. in chemistry from Michigan State University.

“Putting panels on windows works, but then your window becomes a wall,” Smeigh said. “In one regard you’re getting the best of both worlds—still generating electricity, just not as much.”

Smeigh said this technology provides a good opportunity for offsetting electricity usage in practical settings. For example, architects might cover the roof of a skyscraper in solar cells, which are more efficient but are also limited to operating within a more confined space, and use the transparent panels for the windows.

“You have a larger area of windows [on a skyscraper], so I could see it making a bigger difference in generating electricity than if you were to use only roof-mounted solar panels,” Smeigh said.

According to Lunt, solar concentrators have been around for many years, the idea was first developed in the 1970s. Lunt said the motivation driving the technology was the high cost of solar cells, and finding a method to direct light onto fewer cells would be cost-effective. He explained that researchers embedded a luminescent dye into inexpensive sheeting in order to absorb the different colors of the solar spectrum.

The efficiency of his team’s transparent technology is close to one percent, but Lunt said they believe they can get it to at least five percent, and optimally to seven percent with some additional design work, making its efficiency competitive with that of the more unsightly colored luminescent concentrators. Currently, non-transparent solar panels can reach a maximum efficiency of 25.6 percent, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

“You wouldn’t want to operate in a house with that kind of hideous orange or green light coming through,” Smeigh said. “So the fact that it’s colorless to the human eye is a significant improvement.”

The U.S. has seen an exponential increase in solar technology over the last six years, according to Carly Rixham, executive director of the American Solar Energy Society.

“The categories of solar technology include thermal, passive, concentrators and electric, which solar cells fall into,” Rixham said.

She explained that while one percent efficiency is not an impressive number when compared to the 25.6 percent efficiency the National Renewable Energy Laboratory reports can be obtained with photovoltaic panels, the potential practical application makes the transparent ones very valuable.

“In terms of efficiency, we can’t keep moving the carrot,” Smeigh said. “We can’t keep striving to hit goals without implementing them.”

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Lake appears mysteriously in Gafsa, Tunisia

Gafsa lake

A lake that mysteriously appeared in a drought-stricken region of Tunisia last month is being hailed as a miracle by locals but may in fact be radioactive.

Local shepherds discovered the large body of water along the Om Larayes Rd, about 25km from the southern Tunisian city of Gafsa, about three weeks ago, France24 reports.

Since then, hundreds of people have flocked to the oasis-like formation dubbed “Lac de Gafsa” or Gafsa Beach. Families swim there, youths leap from surrounding rocks into its clear waters and the curious – and the cautious – come equipped with scuba gear.

“Some say that it is a miracle, while others are calling it a curse,” France24’s Tunisian correspondent Lakhdar Souid said.

Authorities have offered no official explanation for the lake’s origins but local geologists believe seismic activity may have upset the water table and caused groundwater to rise to the surface.

Gafsa lake1

Are these fun-loving locals being poisoned at this pop-up oasis?

Two weeks after the lake was discovered, Gafsa’s Office of Public Safety warned Tunisians that it was dangerous and not suitable for swimming in.

The region is rich in phosphate – and heavily mined for it – and there are fears the water is contaminated or even radioactive.

“But since there was no official ban on swimming in the lake, Tunisians continue to do so,” Mr Souid said.

“News of the lake’s appearance has spread like wildfire and now hundreds of people, eager to escape a heatwave, go there to swim. While the origins of this lake remains a mystery, our biggest concern right now is the quality of the water.

“This region is overflowing with large deposits of phosphate, which can leave behind radioactive residue so there is a real risk that this water is contaminated and carcinogenic (but) there is no security of any kind.”

Gafsa lake2

Worryingly, the colour of lake, which is estimated to be between 18 and 20 metres deep has changed from a clear, turquoise blue in the first few days to a slightly murky green.”The site is certainly stunning and there are many large rocks perfect for diving but it has become infested with green algae, meaning that the water is stagnant and conducive to diseases,” Mr Souid said.

Despite the government warnings, more than 600 people have already taken a dip at Gasfa Beach, which now has its own Facebook page.


Now two NEW large holes appear in Siberia

28 July 2014

Reindeer herders find more craters in the far north in a deepening puzzle for scientists.

The funnel is a perfectly formed cone, say locals who are mystified at how it was formed. Its depth is estimated at between 60 and 100 metres and its diameter – more than four metres. Picture: Local residents

Millions of people around the world glimpsed the first giant hole after it was revealed by The Siberian Times hereand on The Siberian Times TV here.

Now news has emerged of two new similar formations in the permafrost, prompting more intrigue about their creation.

Theories range from meteorites, stray missiles, a man-made prank, and aliens, to an explosive cocktail of methane or shale gas suddenly exploding. The version about melting permafrost due to climate change, causing a release of methane gas, which then forces an eruption is the current favorite, though scientists are reluctant to offer a firm conclusion without more study.

Crater near Bovanenkovo gas field

Yamal crater near Bovanenkovo from above

Sides of Yamal crater near Bovanenkovo

First pictures from the big crater near Bovanenkovo gas field. Theories range from meteorites, stray missiles, a man-made prank, and aliens, to an explosive cocktail of methane or shale gas suddenly exploding. Pictures: Andrey Naumenko, ‘Yamal-Region’

The second is in the Yamal Peninsula – known to locals as ‘the end of the world’ – like the first. It is some hundreds kilometres from the first, which is close to a huge gas extraction plant at Bovanenkovo. This new crater in the Taz district, near the village of Antipayuta, has a diameter of about 15 metres.

A deputy of the regional parliament – or duma – Mikhail Lapsui has examined this latest phenomenon.

‘I flew by helicopter to inspect this funnel on Saturday 19 July,’ he said. ‘Its diameter is about 15 meters. ‘There is also ground outside, as if it was thrown as a result of an underground explosion.

‘According to local residents, the hole formed on 27 September 2013. Observers give several versions. According to the first, initially at the place was smoking, and then there was a bright flash. In the second version, a celestial body fell there.’

The Chief Scientist of the Earth Cryosphere Institute, Marina Leibman, told URA.RU website: ‘I have heard about the second funnel on Yamal, in Taz district, and saw the pictures.

‘Undoubtedly, we need to study all such formations. It is necessary to be able to predict their occurrence. Each new funnel provides additional information for scientists.’

Yamal holes on the map

Crater near Antipayuta on the map

View of the crater in Antipayuta

This new crater in the Taz district, near the village of Antipayuta, has a diameter of about 15 metres. Pictures: Google maps, press service of the Governor YaNAO

The third crater and hole is in the Taymyr Peninsula, to the east of Yamal, in Kransoyark region. It was accidentally discovered by local herders, inhabitants of the northern village of Nosok.

The funnel is a perfectly formed cone, say locals who are mystified at how it was formed. Its depth is estimated at between 60 and 100 metres and its diameter – more than four metres.

The herders almost fell into the hole which lies on a pasturing route. They took pictures of the hole which were sent to scientists at the Norilsk Taimyr Explorers’ Club.

Experts – geologists, ecologists, and historians – have not come to a consensus about the origin of the funnel, say reports in the region.

‘It is not like this is the work of men, but also doesn’t look like natural formation,’ said one account.

Hole on Taymyr on the map

Big hole on Taymyr near Nosok

The herders almost fell into the hole which lies on a pasturing route. They took pictures of the hole which were sent to scientists at the Norilsk Taimyr Explorers’ Club. Pictures: Google maps,  Local residents

Further study is planned of this hole.

The first hole is around 70 metres deep with an icy lake at its bottom.

Please see our reports on the first hole here and here.


Oetzi the 5300-year-old Mummy – an Unknown Branch of Human Family Tree

A 5300-year-old mummified body of a man whom scientists have fondly named as Oetzi, has really altered our understanding of the human family tree and its gene pool with a DNA pattern that shows that he did not belong to any known branch of human family tree.

oetzi the mummified iceman 2 Oetzi the 5300 year old Mummy   an Unknown Branch of Human Family Tree

Oetzi was found preserved in the ice of the Eastern Alps in 1991 and since 1998 he has been on display at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, Italy. The examination of DNA of Oetzi has revealed that he has no match to any of the known existing races in Europe and most likely has no descendants today.

The scientists examined Oetzi’s mitochondrial DNA and found that it was unique in its structure. The mitochondrial DNA is always passed down to future generations by mothers and since no human being today carries the similar structure, it is safe to conclude that Oetzi has no descendants today.

oetzi the mummified iceman 1 Oetzi the 5300 year old Mummy   an Unknown Branch of Human Family Tree

He was about 46 years old when he met his violent death. Examinations revealed that he had been wounded by an arrow and possibly finished off with a mace blow to the face.

Although he fell into a subgroup called K1, his lineage did not match any of the three known K1 ‘clusters’. This really adds another chapter to the human family tree and our understanding of evolution.


Death toll passes 690 as Israel accused of targeting medical facilities


Health officials say Israeli strikes are preventing medics from tending the wounded and collecting the dead in Gaza

Ambulances have been struck by Israeli military attacks as they attempt to retrieve the injured (AFP)

Israel has struck more than 25 health facilities in the Gaza Strip since the beginning of its military offensive against the besieged coastal enclave earlier this month, according to Palestinian health officials.

The death toll in Gaza has soared since Israel launched a ground invasion on 18 July, with more than 690 killed and over 4,500 people injured in attacks on the strip. On the Israeli side three military officers were killed during Wednesday, bringing the death toll in Israel to 35, which consists of 32 soldiers and three civilian casualties.

Palestinian officials say the Israeli army has deliberately attacked medical facilities.

“Targeting the health facilities is an internationally condemned thing and a red line that should not be crossed,” Health Ministry Undersecretary Medhat Mehesen told a press conference at al-Shifa Hospital, Gaza’s largest medical facility, late on Monday.

“The Israeli troops have been targeting the health facilities and ambulance crews since the beginning of the military operation,” he added.

Four Palestinians were killed on Monday when Israeli troops shelled the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Hospital in the central town of Der al-Balah.

Officials also accuse Israel of stopping ambulances from reaching areas targeted by military strikes, which prevents medical professionals from tending to the wounded and collecting the dead.

A medic was killed on Sunday when Israeli soldiers fired at Palestinian ambulances as they attempted to enter the Shejaiya neighbourhood near Gaza City, a scene of deadly attacks at the weekend that killed scores of civilians and injured hundreds of others.

“We are afraid to see a repeat of what happened to Al-Aqsa Martyrs Hospital,” Mehesen said.

The health official warned of a humanitarian and environmental crisis in Gaza if Israeli troops continue to prevent Palestinian ambulances from reaching the affected areas to move victims’ bodies. He also called for international intervention to provide protection for hospitals and medical professionals against Israeli attacks.

More than 100,000 people have been displaced by Israel’s military offensive, according to UNRWA, which began on 7 July. Many of these people have taken shelter at more than 60 UN-run schools, which officials say have also come under attack.

On Tuesday, a school was shelled when a team of UN workers visited to inspect damage caused the previous day, according to officials who spoke anonymously to AFP.

“Yesterday we got reports that it [the school] was shelled and so today [Tuesday] we sent out guys down to investigate and see which side the fire came from,” said the official. “They went down there with Israeli clearance, and while they were there, they came under Israeli shelling,” he added.

The official said holes were blown through the walls of the school compound and that the gates had been blown off but that no one was injured in the attack. The school has now been evacuated and UNRWA has submitted a formal letter about the shelling to Israel, he added.

The UN Human Rights Council is meeting on Wednesday to discuss the Israeli operation in Gaza with strong criticisms expected. The Palestinians, supported by Arab nations, have submitted a request to the council for an inquiry to look into alleged war crimes and violations of international law carried out by Israel in Gaza.

Wednesday’s meeting in Geneva mirrors the council’s response to Israel’s Operation Cast Lead in 2009, which killed more than 1,400 Palestinians in Gaza. On that occasion the Goldstone Commission was established and its final report was damning of Israeli military attacks, leading to increased international calls for a boycott of Israel.

If the resolution calling for an inquiry is passed this time, a process will begin to set the parameters for a commission, as well as its composition and schedule. It is likely that Israel and the US would seek to delay this and work to narrow its mandate as much as possible.

– See more at:


‘Witch Hunt’: Fired MSNBC Contributor Speaks Out on Suppression of Israel-Palestine Debate

As Gaza body toll mounts, NBC executives crack down on criticism of Israel.
MSNBC contributor Rula Jebreal’s on-air protest of the network’s slanted coverage of Israel’s ongoing assault on the Gaza Strip has brought media suppression of the Israel-Palestine debate into sharp focus. Punished for her act of dissent with the cancellation of all future appearances and the termination of her contract, Jebreal spoke to me about what prompted her to speak out and why MSNBC was presenting such a distorted view of the crisis.

“I couldn’t stay silent after seeing the amount of airtime given to Israeli politicians versus Palestinians,” Jebreal told me. “They say we are balanced but their idea of balance is 90 percent Israeli guests and 10 percent Palestinians. This kind of media is what leads to the failing policies that we see in Gaza.”

She continued, “We as journalists are there to afflict the comfortable and who is comfortable in this case? Who is really endangering both sides and harming American interests in the region? It’s those enforcing the status quo of the siege of Gaza and the occupation of the West Bank.”

Jebreal said that in her two years as an MSNBC contributor, she had protested the network’s slanted coverage repeatedly in private conversations with producers. “I told them we have a serious issue here,” she explained. “But everybody’s intimidated by this pressure and if it’s not direct then it becomes self-censorship.”

With her criticism of her employer’s editorial line, she has become the latest casualty of the pro-Israel pressure. “I have been told to my face that I wasn’t invited on to shows because I was Palestinian,” Jebreal remarked. “I didn’t believe it at the time. Now I believe it.”

An NBC producer speaking on condition of anonymity confirmed Jebreal’s account, describing to me a top-down intimidation campaign aimed at presenting an Israeli-centric view of the attack on the Gaza Strip. The NBC producer told me that MSNBC President Phil Griffin and NBC executives are micromanaging coverage of the crisis, closely monitoring contributors’ social media accounts and engaging in a “witch hunt” against anyone who strays from the official line.

“Loyalties are now being openly questioned,” the producer commented.

The suppression campaign culminated after Jebreal’s on-air protest during a July 21 segment on Ronan Farrow Daily.

“We are disgustingly biased on this issue. Look at how much airtime Netanyahu and his folks have on air on a daily basis, Andrea Mitchell and others,” Jebreal complained to Farrow. “I never see one Palestinian being interviewed on these same issues.”

When Farrow claimed that the network had featured other voices, Jebreal shot back, “Maybe for thirty seconds, and then you have twenty-five minutes for Bibi Netanyahu.”

Within hours, all of Jebreal’s future bookings were cancelled and the renewal of her contract was off the table. The following day, Jebreal tweeted: “My forthcoming TV appearances have been cancelled. Is there a connection to my expose and the cancellation?”

Jebreal is the author of Miral, a memoir about her coming of age in the Israeli-occupied West Bank. Her former partner, Jewish-American filmmaker and artist Julian Schnabel, adapted the book into full length film. A widely published journalist and former news presenter in Italy, Jebreal was a vocal supporter of the now-extinct peace process and a harsh critic of Islamist groups including Hamas. Her termination leaves NBC without any Palestinian contributors.

According to the NBC producer, MSNBC show teams were livid that they had been forced by management to cancel Jebreal as punishment for her act of dissent.

At the same time, social media erupted in protest of Jebreal’s cancellation, forcing the network into damage control mode. The role of clean-up man fell to Chris Hayes, the only MSNBC host with a reputation for attempting a balanced discussion of Israel-Palestine. On the July 22 episode of his show, All In, he brought Jebreal on to discuss her on-air protest.


Malaysia Airlines plane crashes on Ukraine-Russia border – live

A Malaysia Airlines passenger plane has reportedly crashed in Ukraine, on the border with Russia. All the latest details here

This page will automatically update every 90 secondsOn Off

• Interfax reports that a Malaysian plane has crashed in Ukraine
• The plane was flying from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur
• 295 people were onboard
• Reports that the plane could have been shot down

16.50 Reports suggest that the plane was shot down by a surface-to-air missile called a BUK.

Colin Freeman explains:

 The BUK is a self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems in the Soviet era and designed to engage cruise missiles, smart bombs, aircraf and and unmanned aerial vehicles. Modern versions can reach up to 80,000 feet.

16.47 Reaction to the plane crash is beginning to come in now.

This is from Carl Bildt, the Swedish foreign minister

16.45 Malaysian Airlines have confirmed that they have lost contact with the plane.

16.44 Here’s a more detailed route map, showing precisely where the plane dropped off the radar.

16.43 Nick Collins, The Telegraph’s transport editor, points out the following:

16.42 The Ukrainian interior ministry adviser, quoted by Interfax, says there are no survivors.

16.38 More footage is emerging of the scene, minute by minute.

This is the latest from YouTube

16.36 Our Washington correspondent, Raf Sanchez, has the following observation:

 It’s still not clear what happened to today’s Malaysia Airlines flight but last night, as the US announced new sanctions on Russia, American officials suggested Russian weapons were behind the downing of a Ukrainian transport aircraft on Monday. Here’s what they had to say:

“On July 14th, Ukrainians lost an An-26 transport jet, which was shot down from an altitude of 21,000 feet, with eight crew on board. And only very sophisticated weapons systems would be able to reach this height.”


16.34 Interfax are saying that the plane was shot down.

16.28 Initial reports suggested that the flight could have been Malaysia Airlines MH17, which left Amsterdam at 12.14.

It was due to arrive in Kuala Lumpur at 06.09.

16.27 Unconfirmed reports on Twitter showed YouTube footage of a large pall of smoke in fields near Shaktersk.

The footage could not be verified.

16.20 The plane is thought to have crashed near Shaktersk.

16.15 Interfax news agency are claiming that a Malaysian passenger plane has crashed in Ukraine, near the Russian border.

“A Boeing Malaysian Airlines that was flying from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur began to descend about 50km before entering Russian airspace, and was subsequently found burning on the ground in Ukraine,” an aviation source told Interfax.

Interfax said that 295 people were on board at the time.



Ukraine says jet shot down by missile from Russian plane

U.S. imposes tougher sanctions against Russia targeting two major Russian energy firms

The Associated Press Posted: Jul 17, 2014 7:00 AM ET Last Updated: Jul 17, 2014 10:45 AM ETUkraine says its jet downed by missile from Russian plane

Ukraine says its jet downed by missile from Russian plane 2:21

An Air Force fighter jet has been shot down by an air-to-air missile fired from a Russian plane, a spokesman for Ukraine’s Security Council said Thursday.

Andrei Lysenko also said Ukrainian troops had been fired upon by missiles from a village just inside Russia.

Officials in Kyiv have recently accused Russia’s armed forces of being directly implicated in attacks on Ukrainian troops battling an insurgency near the border.

Lysenko said in a televised briefing that the pilot of the Sukhoi-25 jet that was hit on Wednesday evening was forced to bail out after his jet was shot down. He provided no further details.

Pro-Russia rebels, meanwhile, claimed responsibility for strikes Wednesday on two Ukrainian Sukhoi-25 jets.

The Defence Ministry said the second jet was hit by a portable surface-to-air missile, but added the pilot was unscathed and managed to land his plane safely.

Moscow denies Western charges that it is supporting the separatists in Ukraine or sowing unrest in its neighbour.

Russia’s Defence Ministry denied that it had shot down the plane and called the accusations “absurd,” Reuters reported.

“It is absurd, just like all the previous accusations from Kyiv’s leadership against Russia’s Defence Ministry,” Reuters quoted a ministry spokesman as saying.

Russia’s United Nations ambassador said Russia did not shoot down the plane, Reuters reported. “We didn’t do it,” said Vitaly Churkin when asked about the incident by reporters.

On Monday, Ukraine said one of its military transport planes carrying eight people was shot down by a missile fired from Russian territory. Security Service chief Valentyn Nalyvaichenko said he had “unconditional evidence” that Russia was involved in downing the craft.

Rebels claimed to have shot that plane down.

U.S. imposes tougher sanctions

The U.S. slapped tougher sanctions against Russia on Wednesday for its actions in Ukraine, prompting a strong reaction Thursday from Russian President Vladimir Putin, who said they will stalemate bilateral relations and hurt not only Russian, but also American businesses.

Russia’s benchmark MICEX was down 2.6 per cent in early afternoon trading Thursday upon news of the sanctions while Russia’s biggest oil company, Rosneft, was nearly five per cent down.

The U.S. sanctions target two major Russian energy firms including Rosneft, a pair of powerful financial institutions, eight weapons firms and four individuals.

The U.S. penalties, however, stopped short of the most stringent actions the West has threatened, which would fully cut off key sectors of Russia’s oil-dependent economy. But officials said those steps were still on the table if Russia fails to abide by the West’s demands to stop its support for the pro-Russia insurgents.


Deep Mystery: Theories Fly Over Giant Black Hole in Siberia

An enormous crater spotted near Yamal, northern Siberia, has people scrambling for explanations. Siberia’s Zvezda TV recently aired helicopter footage of the giant black hole, which appears to be hundreds of feet wide and according to reports was formed some two years ago. The grainy footage isn’t much to go on, and while scientists are en route to study the crater, speculation abounds.

Russia’s Emergencies Ministry has ruled out a meteorite strike, though such things have been common in Russia recently. And there are the usual out-there theories of UFOs and the like. But the real cause of the hole may simply be the area’s unique geology. One Australian scientist said it looked like a collapsed “pingo,” which is a huge chunk of ice that sits under the soil. But Anna Kurchatova, of the Sub-Arctic Scientific Research Center, has another explanation. The Yamal area (the name is Siberian for “End of the World”) is rich in natural gas, and a pocket of this combined with water and salt could have produced quite a large explosion if the permafrost were punctured by climate-change-induced thaw. The research expedition should yield further information.


New video of mysterious giant Siberian hole filmed by investigation team

New video of mysterious giant Siberian hole filmed by investigation team

Watch new footage of the mysterious giant hole that opened up in Siberia as a scientific expedition—with the country’s Emergencies Ministry represented—reaches the remote site and looks inside. An explosion below the ground is currently thought to be the most probable explanation—but the date and cause remain unknown.

If a Russian speaking reader could help with a detailed translation of the video it would be appreciated.

The Emergencies Ministry told Russia Today that a meteorite was not the cause of the hole. Evidence such as earth around the edge of the entrance appears to point strongly to an explosion from within the ground. However the mystery of how—and even when—the hole was formed in this distant region remains very much unresolved.

New video of mysterious giant Siberian hole filmed by investigation team

The hole sits around 1,800 miles east of Moscow in a huge 400 mile stretch of permafrost with a wide variety of animal species and that is famous for archaeological discoveries including wooly mammoths. The zone is also of key strategic importance for Russian oil and gas production.

New video of mysterious giant Siberian hole filmed by investigation team

A 28 inch layer of permafrost reportedly discovered around the edge of the hole—mentioned in the video—is puzzling given the amount of heat that would be expected to have been generated by an explosion of the magnitude necessary to create such a large crater. It is therefore possible that the remote site lay undiscovered for months if not years.

New video of mysterious giant Siberian hole filmed by investigation teamEXPAND

New video of mysterious giant Siberian hole filmed by investigation team

Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences are on the expedition and are said to be collecting samples of soil, air and water from the area. The hole reportedly has an outer diameter of around 200 feet and an inner diameter of around 130 feet. The depth is unconfirmed.

New video of mysterious giant Siberian hole filmed by investigation team


I decided I’m going to keep bringing this one back from the past till people get the possibilities of the development of this technology and what it is capable of…

Nitinol – Self Healing Meta Materials

The time gap between now and then…think about it


Pottery 20,000 years old found in a Chinese cave

BEIJING (AP) – Pottery fragments found in a south China cave have been confirmed to be 20,000 years old, making them the oldest known pottery in the world, archaeologists say.

The findings, which will appear in the journal Science on Friday, add to recent efforts that have dated pottery piles in east Asia to more than 15,000 years ago, refuting conventional theories that the invention of pottery correlates to the period about 10,000 years ago when humans moved from being hunter-gathers to farmers.

The research by a team of Chinese and American scientists also pushes the emergence of pottery back to the last ice age, which might provide new explanations for the creation of pottery, said Gideon Shelach, chair of the Louis Frieberg Center for East Asian Studies at The Hebrew University in Israel.

“The focus of research has to change,” Shelach, who is not involved in the research project in China, said by telephone.

In an accompanying Science article, Shelach wrote that such research efforts “are fundamental for a better understanding of socio-economic change (25,000 to 19,000 years ago) and the development that led to the emergency of sedentary agricultural societies.”

He said the disconnection between pottery and agriculture as shown in east Asia might shed light on specifics of human development in the region.

Wu Xiaohong, professor of archaeology and museology at Peking University and the lead author of the Science article that details the radiocarbon dating efforts, told The Associated Press that her team was eager to build on the research.

“We are very excited about the findings. The paper is the result of efforts done by generations of scholars,” Wu said. “Now we can explore why there was pottery in that particular time, what were the uses of the vessels, and what role they played in the survival of human beings.”

The ancient fragments were discovered in the Xianrendong cave in south China’s Jiangxi province, which was excavated in the 1960s and again in the 1990s, according to the journal article.

Wu, a chemist by training, said some researchers had estimated that the pieces could be 20,000 years old, but that there were doubts.

“We thought it would be impossible because the conventional theory was that pottery was invented after the transition to agriculture that allowed for human settlement.”

But by 2009, the team — which includes experts from Harvard and Boston universities — was able to calculate the age of the pottery fragments with such precision that the scientists were comfortable with their findings, Wu said.

“The key was to ensure the samples we used to date were indeed from the same period of the pottery fragments,” she said.

That became possible when the team was able to determine the sediments in the cave were accumulated gradually without disruption that might have altered the time sequence, she said.

Scientists took samples, such as bones and charcoal, from above and below the ancient fragments in the dating process, Wu said.

“This way, we can determine with precision the age of the fragments, and our results can be recognized by peers,” Wu said.

Shelach said he found the process done by Wu’s team to be meticulous and that the cave had been well protected throughout the research.

The same team in 2009 published an article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in which they determined the pottery fragments found in south China’s Hunan province to be 18,000 years old, Wu said.

“The difference of 2,000 years might not be significant in itself, but we always like to trace everything to its earliest possible time,” Wu said. “The age and location of pottery fragments help us set up a framework to understand the dissemination of the artifacts and the development of human civilization.”



BREAKING-Meteor Crash, This Time In CUBA

February 15th, 2013
Note: I am still waiting for some international agency to confirm this but as of now most reports are coming from credible television reporters…

Cuba, 15.02.2013 Residents of a locality ‘in the central region of Cuba said they had seen an object that fell from the sky and exploded with a great noise, which shook the houses of the place: it is learned from testimonies collected by local television. In service published this morning by Rodas, town in the province of Cienfuegos, witnesses described a very bright light that has come to have large size, comparable to that of a bus, before exploding in the sky.

2nd source

Huge explosion in the sky in Cuba Meanwhile, also from Cuba has been reported in an explosion sky. In the central region of the island has seen an object that fell from the sky and exploded with a great noise, which shook the houses in the place, reports on local television. In a report released this morning by Rodas, town in the province of Cienfuegos, witnesses described a very bright light that has come to have large size, comparable to that of a bus, before exploding in the sky. Marcos Rodriguez, a resident in region, as defined by the issuer an expert, reported that “everything seems to indicate that it was a fireball, which is a fragment of stone and metal that enters the Earth’s atmosphere at high speed.” Experts are now examining the area for possible remains Rodas minerals falling from the sky, the TV station added. translated-



Reports now from California:

Another Meteor leaves Northern California starstruck

Posted:   02/15/2013 08:15:44 PM PST

Updated:   02/15/2013 08:25:26 PM PST

Reports of a huge shooting star overheard sent many readers to social media Friday evening, closing out a week graced by heavenly wonders like an asteroid passing close by earlier in the day and an unrelated meteor that fell to earth in Russia late Thursday.

Asteroid 2012 DA14 will sweep close later today

Asteroid 2012 DA14 on February 15, 2012 (NASA)

Asteroid 2012 DA14 on February 15, 2012 (NASA)
It’ll pass within the moon’s distance from Earth – closer than the orbits of geosynchronous satellites. But it won’t strike us in 2013.

A near-Earth asteroid – called 2012 DA14 by astronomers – is passing very close to Earth today (February 15, 2013). Astronomers estimate that, when it’s closest to us, it’ll be within the orbit of the moon (which averages about a quarter million miles away), and closer than some high-orbiting communications satellites. 2012 DA14 will be about 17,200 miles (27,680 kilometers) away. Reuters is reporting than a meteorite has struck in Russia, injuring 500 people. It has not been confirmed whether the meteorite is associated with asteroid 2012 DA14, but astronomers do known that asteroids sometimes are accompanied by moon, or travel in swarms.

NEWS. Meteorite strikes Russia early in the day on Friday, February 15. More than 500 people hurt. INFO AND VIDEO HERE.

Who will see the February 15 asteroid flyby?

Asteroid 2012 DA14 won’t be visible to the eye, but you can watch the February 15 asteroid flyby online, in real-time.

The main asteroid – 2012 DA14 – is not expected to strike us in 2013, NASA says. There was a remote possibility it might strike us in 2020, but that possibility has been ruled out also.

Asteroid 2012 DA14 will pass closest on February 15, 2013. As the image above shows, it will pass much closer than the orbit of the moon – closer even that orbiting geosynchronous satellites (22,000 miles). View larger. Image Credit: NASA

What will happen when Asteroid 2012 DA14 passes closely in 2013?

Most of us won’t see the large asteroid 2012 DA14 or be aware of its passage, in any way. 2012 DA14 is not large enough to alter the tides. It won’t cause volcanoes. It’ll just sweep closely past us – as millions of asteroids have done throughout Earth’s four-and-a-half-billion-year history – some in your own lifetime. It appears, however, that asteroid 2012 DA14 was accompanied by another object, which astronomers did not detect until it struck in Russia, injuring hundreds.

Asteroid 2012 DA14 will be within range for small telescopes and solidly mounted binoculars, used by experienced observers who have access to appropriate stars charts. Indonesia is favored for viewing, because it will be the middle of the night there when the asteroid is closest. Europe and the Middle East will also be in a location to view the asteroid, potentially. But this will be a challenging observation. Even those familiar with using binoculars and telescopes will some experience to track the object as it moves rapidly across the sky. Read more about who will see asteroid 2012 DA14 here.

Closest Earth approach will occur about 19:26 UTC when the asteroid will achieve a magnitude of less than seven, which is somewhat fainter than naked eye visibility. About 4 minutes after its Earth close approach, there is a good chance it will pass into the Earth’s shadow for about 18 minutes or so before reappearing from the eclipse. You can be sure experienced astronomers will be watching for that event, and hopefully some will capture video.

What do we know about asteroid 2012 DA14?

Asteroid 2012 DA14 is a little guy, compared to some asteroids. It is thought to be about 45 meters across (nearly 150 feet across), or about the length of half an American football field. Its estimated mass is about 130,000 metric tons.

If a space object 150 feet wide were to strike our planet, it wouldn’t be Earth-destroying. But it has been estimated that it would produce the equivalent of 2.4 megatons of TNT. How does that compare with other known impact events on Earth? In 1908, in a remote part of Russia, an explosion killed reindeer and flattened trees. But no crater was ever found. Scientists now believe a small comet struck Earth. That event has been estimated at 3 to 20 megatons. So 2012 DA14 is in the same approximate realm as the Tunguska comet (which, actually, might have been an asteroid instead). It would not destroy Earth, but it could flatten a city.

Of course, about 70% of our world is covered by oceans. That means the most likely landing spot of any incoming asteroid is in the water – not on a city or other populated area.

Astronomers at the Observatorio Astronómico de La Sagra in Spain discovered 2012 DA14 in early 2012. We know 2012 DA14′s orbit is similar to that of Earth. That is one reason the asteroid eluded astronomers until recently. You can be sure that many astronomers are carefully tracking 2012 DA14 now.

The orbit of 2012 DA14 is an inclined ellipse. In other words, it’s tilted sightly with respect to Earth’s orbit around the sun, and, like Earth’s orbit, it’s not circular but elliptical – like a circle that someone sat down on. According to Bad Astronomer Phil Plait, who appears to have used a computer program to look at its orbit:

The asteroid spends most of its time well away from our planet. However, the path of the rock does bring it somewhat close to the Earth twice per orbit, or about every six months. The last time it passed us was on February 16 [2012], when it was about 2.5 million km (1.5 million miles) away, equal to about 6 times the distance to the moon. That’s usually about the scale of these encounters — it misses us by quite a margin.

Will 2012 DA14 strike Earth in 2020?

No. In March 2012, when a collision between 2012 DA14 and Earth in 2020 was stillremotely possible, I asked astronomer Donald Yeomans to clarify the risk. Yeomans is, among other things, manager of NASA’s Near-Earth Object Program Office at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In March 2012, he told EarthSky that a 2020 collision between Earth and asteroid 2012 DA14 was …

… approximately one chance in 83,000, with additional remote possibilities beyond 2020. However, by far the most likely scenario is that additional observations, especially in 2013, will allow a dramatic reduction in the orbit uncertainties and the complete elimination of the 2020 impact possibility.

It turned out they didn’t have to wait until 2013. By May, 2012, astronomers had ruled out even the remote possibility of a 2020 collision.

Still, 2012 DA14 and asteroids like it are sobering.

Bottom line: The near Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 will have a very close pass near Earth on February 15, 2013. It will sweep approximately 21,000 miles from us – much closer than the moon’s orbit and closer than geosynchronous satellites. Its orbit around the sun can bring it no closer to the Earth’s surface on February 15, 2013 than 3.2 Earth radii. Meanwhile, a meteorite has struck in Russia, early in the day on Friday, February 15, 2013. It has not been confirmed whether the meteorite is associated with asteroid 2012 DA14, but asteroids do sometimes have moons, or travel in swarms.

What happened at Tunguska in 1908?

NEWS. Meteorite strikes Russia early in the day on Friday, February 15. More than 500 people hurt. INFO AND VIDEO HERE.


Research Reveals Exactly How the Human Brain Adapts to Injury

Posted Yesterday

brainsadapttoinjury_500x395For the first time, scientists at Carnegie Mellon University’s Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging (CCBI) have used a new combination of neural imaging methods to discover exactly how the human brain adapts to injury. The research, published in Cerebral Cortex, shows that when one brain area loses functionality, a “back-up” team of secondary brain areas immediately activates, replacing not only the un area but also its confederates.

“The human brain has a remarkable ability to adapt to various types of trauma, such as traumatic brain injury and stroke, making it possible for people to continue functioning after key brain areas have been damaged,” said Marcel Just, the D. O. Hebb Professor of Psychology at CMU and CCBI director. “It is now clear how the brain can naturally rebound from injuries and gives us indications of  how individuals can train their brains to be prepared for easier recovery. The secret is to develop alternative thinking styles, the way a switch-hitter develops alternative batting styles. Then, if a muscle in one arm is injured, they can use the batting style that relies more on the uninjured arm.”

For the study, Just, Robert Mason, senior research psychologist at CMU, and Chantel Prat, assistant professor of psychology at the University of Washington, used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study precisely how the brains of 16 healthy adults adapted to the temporary incapacitation of the Wernicke area, the brain’s key region involved in language comprehension. They applied Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in the middle of the fMRI scan to temporarily disable the Wernicke area in the participants’ brains. The participants, while in the MRI scanner, were performing a sentence comprehension task before, during and after the TMS was applied. Normally, the Wernickearea is a major player in sentence comprehension.

The research team used the fMRI scans to measure how the brain activity changed immediately following stimulation to the Wernicke area. The results showed that as the brain function in the  Wernicke area decreased following the application of TMS, a “back-up” team of secondary brain areas immediately became activated and coordinated, allowing the individual’s thought process to continue with no decrease in comprehension performance.

The brain’s back-up team consisted of three types of brain regions: (1) contralateral areas —areas that are in the mirror-image location of the brain; (2) areas that are right next to the impaired area; and (3) a frontal executive area.

“The first two types of back-up areas have similar brain capabilities as the impaired Wernicke area, although they are less efficient at the capability,” Just said. “The third area plays a strategic role as in responding to the initial impairment and recruiting back-up areas with similar capabilities.”

Additionally, the research showed that impairing the Wernicke area also negatively affected the cortical partners with which the Wernicke area had been working. “Thinking is a network function,” Just explained. “When a key node of a network is impaired, the network that is closely collaborating with the impaired node is also impaired. People do their thinking with groups of brain areas, not with single brain areas.”

Mason, the study’s lead author, noted that following the TMS, the impaired area and its partners gradually returned to their previous levels of coordinated activity, while the back-up team of brain areas was still in place. “This means, that for some period of time, there were two cortical teams operating simultaneously, explaining why performance is sometimes improved by TMS,” he said.

This research builds on Just’s previous research on brain resilience after stroke and brain training to remediate dyslexia.  The studies are motivated by a computational theory, called 4CAPS, that provides an account of how autonomous brain systems dynamically self-organize themselves in response to changing circumstances, which the researchers believe to be the basis of fluid intelligence.

Just, who uses brain imaging to understand how brain processes underpin various types of human thought, has helped to establish Carnegie Mellon as a world leader in brain sciences. The university recently launched a Brain, Mind and Learning initiative to build from its  research excellence in psychology, computer science and computation to continue to solve real-world problems.

Source: Carnegie Mellon University


Memento Mori: Filip Coppens

Sadly, the Archons claim another bright spark…

Filip Coppens passed away in Los Angeles after fighting a rare form of cancer that was only merciful in that it did not prolong his suffering for too long. Some of you may now Filip from his appearances on Ancient Aliens but his work goes much deeper than that extremely reductionist presentation of AAT.

In fact, Filip recently wrote The Ancient Alien Question, that delved into the topic in a balanced, open-ended and dare I say skepticalfashion. His work on the topic- and all things weird and wonderful- is far more rewarding and challenging than the series itself. It was certainly a welcome corrective to the “flesh ‘n’ blood extra-treshtruls” mantra that has reduced the show to a laughingstock for so many.*

If you aren’t familiar with Filip’s work, please take this opportunity to delve into his website, which is a gemstone in the Reality-Based High Weirdness crown. Knee-jerking was anathema to Filip, who always erred on the side of open-minded caution.

Filip always realized that habeas corpus wasn’t just a legal formality, it was vital that alt.researchers end each sentence with a question mark until you can deliver the goods. Even if the Establishment never has to play by those rules (nor do hysterical Creationist shills, for that matter).

Filip, like Mac Tonnies, left us far too soon. But his (and Mac’s) work remains and if his way-too-early passing brings it to your attention for the first time, then take the opportunity to enrich your life with it. The bulk of Filip’s work deals with the secret history of ancient Europe and South America, and he spent a lot of time actually visiting the sites he wrote about.

The alt.research world is most certainly faced with some major challenges and there’s no sign on the horizon that it’s going to weather the coming storm front. There are a lot of dark forces with a lot of dark money who see it as a rich mission field for the gospel of fear, and it seems that their investment is really starting to pay off. In that, Filip’s passing seems like an omen.

I have never been more pessimistic as to where the field is going, particularly with the rise of Conspiricianity, which has the terrible gravity of a black hole and is sucking the feeble-minded into it like so much space-dust. Of course, all the fear-worship repels the same people Filip was trying to reach, turning them off to unconventional POVs, perhaps forever. Which is almost certainly the idea.

But perhaps the question becomes one of delivery. As I wrote recently, I was gobsmacked to see how dominant the high and the weird has become in Geekdom, even if it has to sneak through the back door, unannounced. But maybe the truly revolutionary thought contagions always do.

Either way, Filip Coppens left this Samsara but not before leaving behind a few cheat-codes for those who truly want to hack the reality mainframe. Take advantage of them.

* Even still, Filip didn’t shrink from rebutting the deliberately-misleading, crypto-Creationist disinfo recently released by two longtime apparatchiks for the totalitarian Dominionist-Reconstructionist syndicate (which Sun readers realize was spawned bydoctrinaire fascists like Jerry Falwell and Sun Myung Moon). Their “work” is explicitly produced as part of their ridiculous “ministries”; they won’t tell you but they’ll tell their “brethren” that their agitprop is about proselytizing not scholarship. The dictionary definition of shilling, in other words.

Filip didn’t shrink away (like too many others, out of ignorance or something else) from pointing that inconvenient truth out. I don’t know if the disease took hold before or after that confrontation- and I certainly hope that one has nothing to do with the other- but Filip’s energy and attention to detail is always second to none.



New kind of magnetism discovered: Experiments demonstrate ‘quantum spin liquid’

Image: Tianheng Han
December 20, 2012 by David Chandler

MIT physicists grew this pure crystal of herbertsmithite in their laboratory. This sample, which took 10 months to grow, is 7 mm long (just over a quarter-inch) and weighs 0.2 grams.

Following up on earlier theoretical predictions, MIT researchers have now demonstrated experimentally the existence of a fundamentally new kind of magnetic behavior, adding to the two previously known states of magnetism. Ads by Google Permanent Magnets & More – Alnico, Rare Earth, Permanent plus many more! Come & request a quote. – Ferromagnetism—the simple magnetism of a bar magnet or compass le—has been known for centuries. In a second type of magnetism, antiferromagnetism, the magnetic fields of the ions within a metal or alloy cancel each other out. In both cases, the materials become magnetic only when cooled below a certain critical temperature. The prediction and discovery of antiferromagnetism—the basis for the read heads in today’s computer hard disks—won Nobel Prizes in physics for Louis Neel in 1970 and for MIT professor emeritus Clifford Shull in 1994.

“We’re showing that there is a third fundamental state for magnetism,” says MIT professor of physics Young Lee. The experimental work showing the existence of this new state, called a quantum spin liquid (QSL), is reported this week in the journal Nature, with Lee as the senior author and Tianheng Han, who earned his PhD in physics at MIT earlier this year, as lead author. The QSL is a solid crystal, but its magnetic state is described as liquid: Unlike the other two kinds of magnetism, the magnetic orientations of the individual particles within it fluctuate constantly, resembling the constant motion of molecules within a true liquid. Finding the evidence There is no static order to the magnetic orientations, known as magnetic moments, within the material, Lee explains. “But there is a strong interaction between them, and due to quantum effects, they don’t lock in place,” he says.

Although it is extremely difficult to measure, or prove the existence, of this exotic state, Lee says, “this is one of the strongest experimental data sets out there that [does] this. What used to just be in theorists’ models is a real physical system.” Philip Anderson, a leading theorist, first proposed the concept in 1987, saying that this state could be relevant to high-temperature superconductors, Lee says. “Ever since then, physicists have wanted to make such a state,” he adds. “It’s only in the past few years that we’ve made progress.” The material itself is a crystal of a mineral called herbertsmithite. Lee and his colleagues first succeeded in making a large, pure crystal of this material last year—a process that took 10 months—and have since been studying its properties in detail. Ads by Google Exercise Your Brain – Games You Didn’t Know Existed to Fight Brain Decline and Aging. – “This was a multidisciplinary collaboration, with physicists and chemists,” Lee explains. “You both … to synthesize the material and study it with advanced physics techniques. Theorists were also crucial to this.” Through its experiments, the team made a significant discovery, Lee says: They found a state with fractionalized excitations, which had been predicted by some theorists but was a highly controversial idea. While most matter has discrete quantum states whose changes are expressed as whole numbers, this QSL material exhibits fractional quantum states. In fact, the researchers found that these excited states, called spinons, form a continuum. This observation, they say in their Nature paper, is “a remarkable first.” Scattering neutrons To measure this state, the team used a technique called neutron scattering, which is Lee’s specialty.

To actually carry out the measurements, they used a neutron spectrometer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Md. The results, Lee says, are “really strong evidence of this fractionalization” of the spin states. “That’s a fundamental theoretical prediction for spin liquids that we are seeing in a clear and detailed way for the first time.” It may take a long time to translate this “very fundamental research” into practical applications, Lee says. The work could possibly lead to advances in data storage or communications, he says—perhaps using an exotic quantum phenomenon called long-range entanglement, in which two widely separated particles can instantaneously influence each other’s states. The findings could also bear on research into high-temperature superconductors, and could ultimately lead to new developments in that field, he says. “We have to get a more comprehensive understanding of the big picture,” Lee says. “There is no theory that describes everything that we’re seeing.” Journal reference: Nature Provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Read more at:


U.S. helping underwrite Syrian rebel training on securing chemical weapons

Sources: U.S. helping underwrite Syrian rebel training on securing chemical weapons
December 9th, 2012
05:55 PM ET

By Elise Labott

The United States and some European allies are using defense contractors to train Syrian rebels on how to secure chemical weapons stockpiles in Syria, a senior U.S. official and several senior diplomats told CNN Sunday.

The training, which is taking place in Jordan and Turkey, involves how to monitor and secure stockpiles and handle weapons sites and materials, according to the sources. Some of the contractors are on the ground in Syria working with the rebels to monitor some of the sites, according to one of the officials.

The nationality of the trainers was not disclosed, though the officials cautioned against assuming all are American.

Recommended: Syrian rebels creating unified command

One of the aims, the sources said, is to try to get real time surveillance of the sites because the international community would not have time to prevent the use of the weapons otherwise. The program could explain how U.S. intelligence was able to learn what U.S. officials said was evidence the Assad government is mixing precursors for chemical weapons and loading those compounds into bombs. The intelligence, one U.S. official told CNN last week, came not just from satellite surveillance, but also from information provided by people. The official would not say whether the human intelligence came from telephone intercepts, defectors or people inside Syria.

The U.S. military is also working with neighboring Jordan’s military to train for the potential to secure chemical weapons sites. But U.S. troops cannot train rebel forces because the United States has only authorized nonlethal aid for the opposition.

Syrian President Bashar al-Assad seems to be backing off, at least for now, on the possible use of chemical weapons, after the major international outcry over the military activity, according to several sources. CNN reported Friday that the bombs are not being moved to any delivery devices and that the United States was not aware of any significant additional movement of chemical materials.

The Russians, who have allied with Syria, sent several strong messages to the Assad government over the past week against using chemical weapons, saying doing so would be a red line and Assad would lose Russia’s support if he did. However, the sources said that the lull in activity could be short-lived and they believe that, if desperate enough, Assad would not hesitate to use such weapons.


Archaeologists discover latest hoard of gold in Europe

  • Beautifully-preserved treasures found in Bulgarian historical site
  • Thracian artefacts are more than 2,000 years old
  • May be linked to Phillip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great’s father

Archaeologists have unearthed ancient golden artefacts, including a tiara with animal motifs and a horse head piece, during excavation works at a Thracian tomb in northern Bulgaria.

The significant finds are dated back to the end of the fourth or the beginning of the third century BC and were found in the biggest of 150 ancient tombs of a Thracian tribe, the Getae, that was in contact with the ancient Greeks.

The findings, at the Omurtag mount near the village of Sveshtari, also included a golden ring, 44 applications of female figures as well as 100 golden buttons.

Touching history: An archaeologist displays a gold tiara engraved with a lion's head and other animals found at the Bulgarian tomb. It is part of an incredible and historically-significant haulTouching history: An archaeologist displays a gold tiara engraved with a lion’s head and other animals found at the Bulgarian tomb. It is part of an incredible and historically-significant haul
History experts say the finds are likely remnants from the ritual burial of Gath ruler Kotela, one of the father-in-laws of Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the GreatIntricate: History experts say the finds are likely to be remnants from the ritual burial of Gath ruler Kotela, one of the father-in-laws of Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great. (Right) A golden horse head piece

Intricate: History experts say the finds are likely to be remnants from the ritual burial of Gath ruler Kotela, one of the father-in-laws of Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great. (Right) A golden horse head piece

‘These are amazing findings from the apogee of the rule of the Getae,’ said Diana Gergova, head of the archaeologist team at the site of the ancient Getic burial complex situated near the village of Sveshtari, some 400 km northeast from Sofia.

‘From what we see up to now, the tomb may be linked with the first known Getic ruler Cothelas,’ said Gergova, a renowned researcher of Thracian culture with the Sofia-based National Archaeology Institute.

Gergova explains that it seemed the treasure was wrapped in a gold-woven cloth because a number of gold threads were discovered nearby.

“These were, most likely, remnants from a ritual burial”, said the professor, adding the team expects to discover a huge burial ground, probably related to the funeral of the Gath ruler Kotela, one of the father-in-laws of Philip II of Macedon – Alexander the Great’s father.

A pair of golden artifacts that date back to the end of the fourth or the beginning of the third century BCA pair of golden artifacts that date back to the end of the fourth or the beginning of the third century BC

Crafted: A pair of golden artefacts that date back to the end of the fourth or beginning of the third century BC

Valuable: The artifacts are Thracian. Modern Bulgaria is viewed as the geographical cradle of Thracian civilizationValuable: The artifacts are Thracian. Modern Bulgaria is viewed as the geographical cradle of Thracian civilization

Valuable: The artefacts are Thracian. Modern Bulgaria is viewed as the geographical cradle of Thracian civilisation

She notes this is a unique find, never before discovered in Bulgaria, according to Novinite.

One of the tombs there, known as the Tomb of Sveshtari, is included in the World Heritage List of U.N. education and culture agency, UNESCO, for its unique architectural decor with half-human, half-plant female figures and painted murals.

The find is so significant that Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov has arranged to see it at the National Archaeological Museum in Sofia where the treasure is currently placed.

The Thracians, ruled by a powerful warrior aristocracy rich in gold treasures, inhabited an area extending over modern Romania and Bulgaria, northern Greece and the European part of Turkey from as early as 4,000 BC.

They lived on the fringes of the Greek and Roman civilisations, often intermingling and clashing with the more advanced cultures until they were absorbed into the Roman Empire around 45 AD.

Archaeologists have discovered a large number of artefacts in Bulgaria’s Thracian tombs in recent decades, providing most of what is known of their culture, as they had no written language and left no enduring records.

Insight: The excavations near the village of Sveshtari have been a rich source of information about the mysterious Thracians
Insight: The excavations near the village of Sveshtari have been a rich source of information about the mysterious Thracians

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PUBLISHED: 21:13 GMT, 11 November 2012 | UPDATED: 08:25 GMT, 12 November 2012


Venice ‘high water’ floods 70% of city

Venetians direct anger at forecasters after ‘exceptional and unpredictable’ rise in sea waters floods homes and businesses.

People sit at a table in flooded St Mark's Square in Venice, Italy

People sit at a table in flooded St Mark’s Square in Venice, Italy Photograph: Luigi Costantini/AP

Tourists attached plastic bags to their legs or stripped off to take a dip in St Mark’s Square in Venice on Sunday as rising sea waters surged through the lagoon city. High water measuring 1.49 metres (5ft) above the normal level of the Adriatic sea came with bad weather that swept Italy over the weekend, causing floods in historic cities including Vicenza as well in the region of Tuscany 250 miles further south.

Venice’s high water, or “acqua alta”, said to be the sixth highest since 1872, flooded 70% of the city and was high enough to make raised wooden platforms for pedestrians float away. The record high water in Venice – 1.94 metres in 1966 – prompted many residents to abandon the city for new lives on the mainland.

Venetians bombarded Facebook with moans about the city’s weather forecasters, who had predicted just 1.2 metres of water on Saturday, before correcting their forecast at dawn on Sunday.

“How come the people from the council who put out the wooden platforms were predicting 150cm?” asked Matelda Bottoni, who manages a jewellery design shop off St Mark’s Square, which floods when water reaches 105cm. “Many residents and shopkeepers had gone to the mountains for the day and did not have time to rush back.”

Bottoni is so used to floods she has installed waterproof furniture and an angled floor. “I cannot keep the water out, but at least I can make sure it goes straight back out when it recedes,” she said.

Matteo Secchi, a hotelier and head of a protest group, who grew up in ground floor flat in Venice and recalls splashing into water on getting out of bed, said his hotel was only safe up to 140cm. “This morning the lagoon came right into the hotel entrance, and this is not clean water – you to mop with disinfectant twice after it goes down,” he said. “The British tourists don’t complain but the Americans can’t understand how it’s possible.”

Secchi complained that a running event around the city had not been cancelled on Sunday. “As Venetians were trying to fix their homes and shops, people were running down the flooded streets splashing everyone with water,” he said.

Alessandro Maggioni, the city’s assessor for public works, defended the Venice weather centre, describing the high water as “exceptional and unpredictable”. The Moses flood barrier system being built to protect the lagoon, due for completion in 2015, would have kept the city dry, he said. “Meanwhile, there is no rise in the incidence of high waters,” he said.

Bottoni disagreed. “My shop now has some form of flooding 100 days a year, up from 30-40 days when I moved in just 10 years ago.” But she does not plan to leave. “I was born and raised here and will stay here for the satisfaction of being in Venice.”




50,000 dead starfish found on Irish beach

Lissadell Beach, Co Sligo, strewn with dead starfish

Lissadell Beach, Co Sligo, strewn with dead starfish

Extreme weather conditions have killed tens of thousands of starfish and left them strewn across a sheltered beach. A carpet of pink and mauve echinoderms, a family of marine animals, appeared yesterday morning on Lissadell Beach in north Co Sligo. The adult starfish, measuring between 7cm and 20cm in diameter and estimated to be up to 50,000 in number, stretched along 150 metres of the strand. Marine biologist and lecturer at Sligo Institute of Technology Bill Crowe speculated that they had been lifted up by a storm while feeding on mussel beds off shore. “The most likely explanation is that they were feeding on mussels but it is a little strange that none of them were attached to mussels when they were washed in,” he said. He added that if they had died as a result of a so-called ‘red tide’ or algal bloom, other sealife would have been washed ashore with them. “These were almost all adult size and the typical starfish variety that is found in the North Atlantic but there was nothing else mixed in with them,” he said. Surveying the unusual scene, he placed some in a bucket of seawater to test whether they were alive, but while this prompted a slight response from one or two of the creatures, the vast majority were dead. Tim Roderick, District Conservation Officer with the National Parks and Wildlife Service, agreed the phenomenon was most likely caused by recent bad weather. “They turned up almost certainly as a result of an exceptional storm event. “A storm hit the seabed where these sub-tidal animals were and lifted them up and washed them ashore,” he said. A spokesperson for the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government said that investigations were continuing into how they came to be washed ashore but initial indications pointed to the stormy weather, which has been a feature in the north-west in recent days. In a similar episode earlier this year, thousands of dead starfish washed ashore on Youghal Beach in Co Cork. Scientists speculated that they, too, had been thrown on to the beach by an underflow, which was probably caused by a storm at sea.

Source Irish Independent

(For the record I don’t agree with the mussels, undertow, or storm theory. Marine animals have a very delicate and sensitive ecosystems that is required of their survival. I think their is more evidence of changing variations in these ecosystems that could affect the vitality of the creatures than anything else.)

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Mystery space ball drops on Namibia

A large metallic space ball fell out of the sky on a remote grassland in Namibia, prompting authorities to contact Nasa and the European space agency.

Space ball drops on Namibia

With a diameter of 14 inches, the ball has a rough surface and appears to consist of ‘two halves welded together’ Photo: AFP/GETTY
The hollow ball, which has a circumference of 43 inches, was found near a village in the north of Namibia some 480 miles from the capital Windhoek, according to police forensics director Paul Ludik.

Locals had heard several small explosions a few days beforehand, he said.

With a diameter of 14 inches, the ball has a rough surface and appears to consist of “two halves welded together”.

It was made of a “metal alloy known to man” and weighed 13 pounds, said Ludik.

It was found 59ft from its landing spot, a hole one foot deep and 12ft wide.

The sphere was discovered mid-November, but authorities first did tests before announcing the find.

Police deputy inspector general Vilho Hifindaka concluded the sphere did not pose any danger.

“It is not an explosive device, but rather hollow, but we had to investigate all this first,” he said.




Seafloor Rising


Australian Bureau of Meteorology – Buoy 53046


Read more…

G.A.I.A. and E.I.R.S. go to Bulgaria – The Thracian Expedition

May 9, 2013 4 comments

-Ancient Thracian Burial Mounds in Bulgaria-

There is a long forgotten a time in history that still hides in plain site, where burial tombs of the ancients still scatter across the Bulgarian landscape. From beautifully adorned walls to grand and skilled goldworks, the lost civilization of the ancient and powerful Thracians has baffled and eluded scholars for centuries under seemingly simple earth mounds and hills. Only now is the lost and forgotten history of the Ancient Thracian civilization becoming slowly uncovered as more and more Thracian burial tombs are investigated and researched across the Balkans, especially in Bulgaria. 

What we actually know of the ancient Thracian people is very vague and conspicuously limited. We know they existed in the Balkans for thousands of years, yet we only know timelines ranging to around 800BC and not much further back. Where did the other few thousand years of history go??? Precariously buried along the Balkan landscape, that’s where. So Ivo Andreev, a member of Earth’s International Research Society, along with Mike Tate, co-founder of the Geophysical Assessment and Investigation Association, traveled to Bulgaria for a Thracian research expedition during the Spring of 2013 to conduct intensive research of these tombs and the ancient land of the Thracian Kingdoms.

Modern Scholars denounce the ancient Thracians as having any written language or any historical texts. Though there are many very factual references that the ancestors of the mid-late Thracians were the predecessors of the ancient Greeks, which is obviously who the early Romans were heavily influenced by. Even the Greeks themselves stake claim that the gods of their most ancient and sacred myths are clearly having ancient Thracian lineage and origin. In fact, this aspect is very well documented in Greek historical texts. So apart from what we know scientifically of the ancient Thracians and what physical evidences we have at this time, it inevitably seems that this is the “even more” ancient and “almost” lost culture of the Balkans of who the most ancient from beyond the civilizations of the Romans and the Greeks come from, and in fact the ancient Thracians were where these later civilizations drew their early influences from. The evidences points to the possibility of an Anatolian Origin dating back to thousands and thousands of years ago. Maybe even fitting into a possible Kurgan hypothesis as well. What exactly happened in this region 7,000-3000 years ago is what we intend to discover exactly. They say most of it is lost…we say no, maybe most of it just hasn’t been found.

Thracian Expedition

Here is where G.A.I.A. comes in. Geophysical Assessment and Investigation Association is a geophysical research branch of E.I.R.S. with the ability to create detailed analysis reports of 0-30 meters in depth. All our research is 100% non-destructive. 

Mission: Research various pre-planned coordinates.

Result: Discovered and researched a cluster of 12 Mounds within 12 square kilometers.

Here are just a few pictures of our research expedition to Bulgaria:

We conducted several non-destructive analysis procedures on many mounds involving electromagnetics and 3-D modeling software. In particular, we are using a new type of technology for sub-surface imaging applications incorporating FMCW radar, which is also found as a key component in aircraft landing procedures. This technique is far superior and further reaching than anything else available and we are among the first on earth to use this type of technology for geophysical ground analytics.

The actual researching with our instruments is what took up most of our time. We acquired as much data as we could in a very short while. The mission was indeed a complete success.

Here you can see cavities several meters below the surface in 2-D with many clear reflections:

And again here in 3-D:

And even in some places showed to be very wet cavities underneath:

We even went to the small town of “Botunets” where we investigated a large mound at the town center next to the school:

This mound looks to have been looted some time ago but our device shows positive readings of a structure creating an empty cavity with many reflections of precious metals still being inside the age old resting place of a unknown ancient Thracian king. We hope to find out who exactly it is and preservate for the people of Botunets, and the people of Bulgaria, a part of their historical culture that is on the verge of being forgotten.

It seems we found something the looters missed all those years ago! In any case, we do not have permits to dig or excavate so that is not an option for us this trip. But our future plans to do what we can in this region has now become established.

Since we decided there will obviously be no excavting this time around, we went to go see what has been discovered of the ancient Thracians in this region of the Balkans:

An amazing bronze statue of a life-sized head of Seuthes III

Magnificent craftsmanship reminiscent of ancient Athens, yet they came before the Greeks

A pure gold Death mask of a yet unknown Thracian King

Brilliantly designed vases with a style not seen anywhere else in the world, almost exotic in nature

Their attention to detail is seen in the items of preferred luxuries

Even their drinking containers can be found with the most exquisite artisan skills

The artefacts and other valuable finds uncovered in this region is amazing. Sadly, there are many other locations around Bulgaria that at one time held precious tangibles like this museum but have now been looted. These locations are left destroyed and eventually begin to look overgrown and forgotten about. It becomes easy to see what is currently happening to ancient Bulgarian heritage and culture…An ever present decline of preservation.

Overall, what we found is a rich and teeming cultural heritage slowly becoming lost to the annals of tumultuous times. In terms of cultural heritage and the preservation of these important ancient Thracian sites, it’s all too easy to see…the country needs help if help is available. We found several mounds, some with markers and some without, that seem to have been totally neglected and forgotten about. We even found many that were obviously looted some time ago and have now been left to wither away without the adequate attention or recognition. Granted there are areas of Bulgaria that are highly publicized and very well taken care of, such as Perperikon and the “Valley of Thracian Kings” among other sites, especially up into Varna…But by far and large, this country and the historical importance it holds is in desperate need of major heritage and cultural preservation. The looters have bulldozers and wait for no one, and academia has shovels and brushes if they can get through the paperwork and the permissions. It’s that simple. Our problem however are the sites that have already been destroyed. The looters demolish a mound and leave an aftermath of slight destruction, afterwards everyone including academia and even the local authorities turn away from it and leave it in this condition as if there is nothing that can be done about it. Then it is forgotten about and overgrown with shrubbery and trash. If we do not do something about this in 15 years these sites will not even be recognizable. Ultimately, what we discovered is that there are literally hundreds of ancient sites of historical importance. Some of them, at the current rate of preservation, will most definitely be lost and forgotten about within 50 years.

-Introducing the Thracian Preservation Alliance-

What is the upside to all this? Well alot actually. One of the greatest things is the decision to create a separate not-for-profit organization (of which will include alliances with E.I.R.S. and G.A.I.A.) to usher in volunteers from all over the world, and especially in Bulgaria and the Balkans, for the efforts of Thracian Heritage and Culture Preservation in Bulgaria and abroad. The good part is that many of these sites still hold uncountable amounts of evidences and artefacts that are still completely invaluable to the scientific communities and to the discipline of Thracology itself. Even if only all the looted mounds themselves were cleaned up and renovated to not look like a destroyed Thracian site and turned back into something that can be appreciated as a recognition of world heritage, that in itself is a great achievement to be accomplished by volunteer forces. Not to mention all that we would discover along the way. The organization is called the Thracian Preservation Alliance. This project is in its infantile stages and still gasping for air against the authorities and their need of a drastic revision of the Cultural Heritage laws. However, we are still making connections to other various alliances and furthering our own inquiries. While our plans are swift and aggressive and our goals for 2013 are very attainable, it all depends on the support we receive from the around the world as well as the local authorities. We will be providing select volunteer expeditions in addition to our own ongoing research trips to the region. As well we have began applying for preservation funds through the various routes available. Donations are as of now being accepted and cooperations and collaborations are now being formed. If you are the least bit interested in the cultural and historical preservation of the ancient Thracians, not just in Bulgaria but in the whole Balkan region, then please get in contact with us. This is a very exciting time for anyone becoming involved right now!


The Thracian Expedition was more than we could have hoped for with many positive results and future plans. If only the political side of things were that easy. That’s why it is paramount that the Thracian Preservation Alliance receives as much support as it can. They will need help, that is for sure, and they cannot do it on their own. They will need enthusiastic people who are driven with a purpose. People who can spread the word and stand with us, whether it be from home or actually there on location! We have a very unique opportunity to doing something important and meaningful and decent for the lost heritage and culture of the ancient Thracians. It is they who gave way to the most influential people and civilizations who shaped the world as we know it with their powerful history and became immortalized as gods among other cultures such as the ancient Greeks. Their history is still lost beneath the beautiful green valleys and magnificent mountainous terrain…and even beneath the debris of long looted tombs. They can all easily be venerated once again for it’s historical significance and become a true attraction of world heritage and cultural recognition…the ancient Thracians and their contributions to civil evolution and historical events truly makes them worthy of deserving it. Our efforts will take us beyond Bulgaria and into countries such as Romania and Macedonia and others as the Thracians once ecompassed almost the entire Balkan region. There is alot to do with very little time. Please message us if you are interested in just finding out how you can contribute. And money is not the main factor in this project, volunteering is. Email us today to see what opportunity lies for you.

Please sign this petition for the Bulgarian Minister of Culture to allow us to clean a desecrated and looted Thracian mound.

All general inquiries are encouraged to email:

For direct immediate contact you can also reach Mike Tate 24hours a day at 

He will be conducting the majority of efforts regarding the “Alliance” as well as become the main contact for now

Thank you so much for your attention and thank you for reading!

most of the images above were taken by Ivo Andreev

Pyramidal Structures Worldwide

October 6, 2012 11 comments

Pyramidal Structures Near Western Cuba

Pyramids under the waters of Cuba were discovered by two scientists Paul Weinzweig and Pauline Zalitzki. They found the ruins of ancient buildings for about a mile below the sea and considered them to be Atlantis.

Paulina found elsewhere in Cuba ancient descriptions and symbols that was identical to those on the waterfront structures below.

The two scientists used submarines to found tremendous pyramid structures (that reminds one of Giza in Egypt), built of stones weighing hundreds of tons.

They found sphinxes, stones that arranged like Stonehenge, and a written language engraved on the stones.

Why it was not discovered before?

The U.S. government discovered the alleged place during the Cuban missile crisis in the sixties, Nuclear submarines cruising in the Gulf (in deep sea) met pyramid structures. They immediately shut down the site and took control of him and the objects,in order that it will not come to Russians hands.

A whistleblower from the army,that used to serve in Montego Bay said they are still working on the site and recover objects and instruments (including those who still work) since the 60’s.

This area in Cuba was above water 10,000 years ago…

The Morien Institute interviews Dr. Weinzweig and you can read this HERE 

Additional links:


The Pyramids of Faroe Islands

The pyramid shaped mountain is called Kirvi and the top of it is called Kirviskollur. You can also see the to top of Beinisvørð to the left in the photo. Beinisvørð is a 469 m high birdcliff. It is absolutely worth a visit.

Kirvi is a mountain in Suðuroy, near the village Lopra. Kirvi is 236 meter high. The mountain is visible from the villages Lopra and from Nes, which is between Vágur and Porkeri. The mountain is located in the municipality of Sumba.



The Gunung Padang Pyramid

Slowly but surely the mystery of the “pyramid” in Gunung Padang, Cianjur, West Java, is beginning to unravel. One by one, researchers claim to have found evidence that the pyramid-shaped mountain is man-made, and not a natural formation.

Radar imaging shows that the mountain hides enclaves of rock that resemble shrines. If this hypothesis is correct, then the building that has been forgotten for decades will allegedly defeat the discovery of the pyramids in Egypt.

Tempo Magazine in its edition dated August 27, 2012, tracked the mystery of the Gunung Padang site. The age of the “pyramid” is estimated at 4,700-10,900 BC. Compare this to the age of the Giza pyramids in Egypt, which is only 2,500 BC old. But the research is limited still. That is why geologists continue to be skeptical about the “pyramid” is. Too early to be announced.

Gunung Padang became the talk of the town the Ancient Catastrophic Team conducted a study on Cimandiri quake fault, about four miles to the north of the site. The team was formed by Special Staff of the President to the Social and Natural Disasters Assistance Andi Arief.

The controversy erupted after Andi announced early last year that there was some kind of a pyramid under Gunung Padang. “Whatever the name or shape, it’s clear there hollows thereunder,” said Andi. “At a glance, it doesn’t look like a mountain, more manmade.”

His suspicion started because the shape of the mountain was nearly like a triangle when viewed from the north. The team earlier also found a similar form on Gunung Sadahurip in Garut and on Bukit Dago Pakar in Bandung expert while researching the Lembang fault.

Andi Arief says the work of his team at Gunung Padang is almost finished. When it comes to excavation, however, he gave up because it will cost a huge amount. “That is Arkenas’ job,” he said.,20120828…

Posted by tatooke on September 12, 2012 

GLR ANdReA's picture

By GLR ANdReA – Posted on 12 September 2012

Java, Indonesia

Candi Sukuh


Not a lot is known about this site, except that it has the only pyramidal temple in Southeast Asia, and dates to 1416 – 1459 AD. As well as bearing an uncanny resemblance to Central American pyramids, there is also a twin-headed serpent, as discussed in Chapter XX.


Xian was for a long time the capital of Ancient China. It has become a popular tourist destination for Westerners since the discovery of the “Terracotta Warriors”. The evidence of local pyramids is scant, due to the Chinese Government and its ‘forbidden zones’ surrounding the city of Xian in the Shensi Province. These zones are off-limits to foreigners, probably due to military and/or space program bases in the area. Within these zones there are possibly 100 pyramids, and some adventurers have managed to photograph a few them:

The black and white photo was taken by James Gaussman, an American pilot, at the end of WW II (the others are by Mr Hausdorf).

These are not stone pyramids, nor earth mounds, but a combination of the two – made of earth and clay, shaped like pyramids with flattened tops (the same technique as Teotiuhuacan). It is rumoured that in recent times the Chinese Government ordered the planting of trees on the pyramids as a way of disguising them as regular hills, or at least their making their shape harder to discern. New Zealand author Bruce Cathie sought information on their exact locations, so he could fit them into his Harmonic Grid. After initially denying their existence outright, the Chinese officials eventually conceded that there are some “trapezoidal tombs” [i] .

According to Hartwig Hausdorf [ii] , they differ in size from between 25 to 100 metres in height, with the exception of one, the Great White Pyramid. It is situated to the north, in the valley of Qin Lin, and is possibly the world’s largest pyramid, with an approximate height of 300 metres (twice the size of Egypt’s largest).

Update! – In 2004 Chris Maier studied satellite images of the Xian region, found the same pyramids as Hausdorf, and then went there and took a look. Turns out that they are not in a “forbidden zone”, are quite well known, and any tourist can take a look, or even climb the biggest pyramid for free! Read his article

Update! – In 2002-2007, Emperor Qin Shihuang’s tomb (home of the terracotta warriors) was proven (using radar and other remote sensing technologies) to be more than a earth mound – underneath the dirt is a four-sided, nine-stepped pyramid, very similar to those in Central America. Read more at Channel 4, and – the image below is the shape they believe the pyramid takes.

Russia – Brat & Sestra, nr Nakhodka

320 metres high each, they were until recently in a military zone. Today they are being mined (or could that be a cover for treasure hunting?) – which explains why the top has been removed from one of them. More at Flip Coppins site


Andong step pyramid, is the best one of pyramids survived being undestroyed in South Korea, is located at soktapri, andong, korea, in the northern valley of Mt. Hakka, 30 km road away from Andong. 13.2 meters by 12.7 meters square and about 4.5 meters high


When Captain Cook visited Tahiti, he described the Marae of Mahaiatea as having a stepped pyramid with a base of 259 by 85 feet. Unfortunately all that remains today is a pile of stones. This drawing comes from the 1799 book The Voyage of McDuff.

Western Samoa

On the island of Savai’i you can find Polynesia’s largest ancient structure, the Pulemelei Mound. The Lonely Planet guide for Samoa describes it:

This large pyramid measures 61 metres by 50 metres at the base and rises in two tiers to a height of more than 12 metres. It is almost squarely oriented with the compass directions.. Smaller mounds and platforms are found in four directions away from the main structure. There is a relatively large platform about 40 metres north of the main pyramid and connected to it by a stone walkway.

Unfortunately the jungle there is almost uncontrollable. The pyramid has been cleared on several occasions, but when I studied it in 1996 it was overgrown and difficult to locate. So much so, that it was only when I kicked a stone embedded in the top platform did I realise I had found it! The bottom right corner of the photo is the pyramid. UPDATE: Since 2002 the site has been cleared and studied by experts. New pictures and information.

Bosnian Pyramids 
In the spring of 2006 five pyramids had been found in central Bosnia in the town Visoko. The biggest is the Pyramid of the Sun with height of 220 metres. Other pyramids are also huge. The Bosnian pyramids don’t look like the Egyptian pyramids. Scientists and researchers from Egypt, Austria, England, Russia, Croatia and other countries join to Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramids of the Sun Foundation to find the truth about builders and meanings of the mysterious pyramids in Bosnia and Herzegovina… >>>

The list of articles about the Bosnian Pyramids:
Impressions of the Bosnia Pyramids—From One American’s Point of View By Sharon Prince Wothke

Official website:

located about 40 km northeast of Milan and about 15 km south of Lecco in Lombardy/Italy there is a small village with 3 pyramid shaped hills. These hills in Montevecchia were discovered in 2003 by the Italian architect Vincenzo DeGregorio.
Read more on European Pyramids

Three pyramidal hills near Florence

14 km south of Florence/Tuscany there are 3 hills near the city of PONTASSIEVE (meaning: bridge over the river Sieve). These hills rise approx.140 m high from elevation 130 m to 270 m. The orientation is N-S/E-W with their edges. They stand in the so-called Orion formation, which means the geometrical pattern is equal to the Belt Stars of Orion. No excavation has been conducted so far. But the area of Pontassieve is well known for its prehistoric finds. There has been a paleolithic settlement dated to 25000 BC.
Read more on European Pyramids
In Greece, there are now 16 catalogued pyramids. Though some may be natural, others—like the Hellinikon pyramid near the village of Argolis—are clearly man-made structures. Intriguingly, one thermo-luminescence test by the Academy of Athens has dated the structure to 2720 BC, contemporaneous with the Egyptian pyramid age. Though pyramidal in shape, the Greek structures do not enthral like the Egyptian pyramids, which dwarf them in size. Read more on European Pyramids

Pyramids of Tenerife island 

There is a huge lava stone complex with 6 pyramids, partially reconstructed, in the town of Güimar on Tenerife. Discovered by Thor Heyerdahl in 1999 and turned into a museum with archaeological park.
Read more on European Pyramids

In Maribor, northern Slovenia close to the Austrian border, a hill named Piramida (elevation 386m, height from base to top appr.80m) overlooks the city and has once served as lookout post for the defence of the city. Two more hills, called Kalvarija and Mesti Vrh, of similar height and aligned with Piramida stand next to it. Read more on European Pyramids


Notes on China

Pyramids and pyramidal structures are a worldwide phenomena, found in Egypt, Peru, Central America, America’s Mississippi Valley, France, Polynesia. Now we can add two more locations, China and Japan.For decades, one of the few clues that China has pyramids was a grainy, black and white photo of a huge, shadowy, pyramidal form. It is an aerial shot, taken by WWII USAF pilot James Gaussman, as he flew over China delivering supplies from India to Chungking, in the spring of 1945. (See article below)Today, thanks to German researcher and author Hartwig Hausdorf, we have many more photos, plus videotape and his eyewitness report of at least a hundred pyramids in China’s Shensi Province. An e-mail message hooked me up with Hausdorf. By telephone and fax, we’ve been corresponding, and he was kind enough to send me two of his books in German. (Will someone please publish his books in English so I can read them?) My friend Jo Curran, fluent in German, read me selected portions of Satellites of the Gods for this article. Hausdorf’s other book is entitled The White Pyramid. Hausdorf will be a guest on The Laura Lee Show, the Saturday Night radio show I host, on August 2nd. Here’s what I can say thus far.

Hausdorf came by his invitation to Xian, China, and the Chinese pyramids, when he attended a lecture by Erich von Daniken. A personal friend who wrote the foreword to one of his books, von Daniken was the first to bring the ancient astronaut theory to worldwide prominence through a series of popular books. It was at this lecture that he met Chen Jianli. They talked about Hausdorf’s research dealing with mysterious artifacts in China, including pyramids. Mr. Chen was born in Xian, and so, despite the official party line, did not consider pyramids in China to be nonsense; as a young boy, he had heard people talk of them. Through his connections in the Chinese capitol, Mr. Chen obtained a special permit for Hausdorf to travel in Xian’s forbidden zones. Not once, but twice; in March and October of 1994.

The Chinese don’t like to talk about their pyramids. Hausdorf couldn’t help but notice that, in talking with high ranking archeologists at the Beijing Academy of Sciences about these pyramids, the reaction was one of panic. Only when shown the Gaussman photo would they reluctantly confirm the existence of just a few pyramidal structures, near Xian. That’s where Hausdorf found, not a few pyramids, but ninety to one hundred such structures. There are signs that that attitude is changing. The October 1996 issue of China Today, an official periodical issued in Chinese, German, English, Arabic and French, contains an article about Hausdorf’s second expedition through the Shensi pyramids.

It was there that Hausdorf found pyramids either made of, or covered with, clay that has become nearly stone-hard over the centuries. They are undecorated, and partly damaged by erosion and farming. A few have carved stones standing in front of them. What of stone pyramids? That is found in Shandong. It has no steps. It is 50 feet tall, with a small temple at its apex, designed along the golden proportion.

How old are these pyramids? Prof. Wang Shiping of Xian estimates they are 4,500 years old. Hausdorf believes they are older, and tells of the diaries of two Australian traders. They were there in 1910 or 1912 and came across some of the pyramids, writes Hausdorf. When asking an old Buddhist monk, they were told, that the pyramids are not just mentioned in the 5,000-year-old records of his monastery, but said to be very old. That means, they are at least more than 5,000 years old!

In investigating what the Chinese authorities will reveal about the pyramids, Hausdorf was told the story of an emperor, Qin Shi Huangdi, who lived between 259 and 210 B.C. Prior to his reign, bitter feuding between rival states for dominance over a splintered China went on from 475 to 221 B.C. It was Emperor Huangdi who ended the fighting. And thanks to the commentaries of historian Sima Qian, who lived from 145 to 86 B.C., we know the existence and location of the emperor’s grave, beneath a hill 150 feet tall, planted with grass and trees. The hill, apparently, is man-made. According to Sima, beneath this hill is a 140-foot-tall pyramid with five terraces. The historian’s chronicles state that almost 700,000 workers worked on this tomb. The earth was removed down to ground water level. The floor was then poured with molten bronze. On this platform a stone sarcophagus was laid. When the structure was completed, those who knew where the entrance was were silenced; they were entombed alive. To further disguise it, the pyramid was carefully covered with earth and grass to give the impression of a natural hill.

The pyramid’s interior was quite elaborate. Sima wrote of an artificial universe painted with stars impressed upon the ceiling of the chamber in which the emperor lies. There was an entire landscape with rivers made out of mercury, somehow held in constant motion. The tomb is well protected against grave robbers, utilizing quite an ingenious security system. Crossbows with mechanical triggers make up an automatic shooting gallery, with a hail of arrows targeting intruders. For a long time, these historical commentaries were considered as mere legends. But new excavations around the outer perimeter of this hill seemed to confirm Sima’s chronicles, an analysis of the earth from the immediate area of the great pyramid revealed an exceptionally high concentration of mercury. It would seem the archeologists are taking the stories seriously, as they are reticent to work around this ancient emperor’s high-security tomb. We are leaving this tomb under the hill to the future, so the next generation has something to work on, says one of the leading archeologists.

Still, this emperor lived two thousand, not five thousand years ago, so such stories of elaborate tombs cannot explain all of China’s pyramids. This is the only one that they can pin with a date and a purpose. The others are complete mysteries.

Wang Shiping is one of the Chinese archeologists looking beyond the standard issue explanations. He has found that one of the newly discovered pyramids is very nearly located at the exact geographical middle point of the country, and concludes that the ancient Chinese must have had astounding methods of measuring. He has also found that on the whole, the pyramids are oriented towards the stars. Which makes sense, after all, some of the oldest records of astronomical observations are Chinese. They were also wise to the ancient knowledge of Feng Shui, geomancy, still practiced today. Wang notes that the orientation of the pyramids up to the time of the Han dynasty, is with their main axis east-west. After that, they were all oriented north-south. Why that is, he cannot say, but is sure it must have a meaning, because the Chinese didn’t do anything without consulting the Feng Shui.

Hausdorf also tells the story of how our astronauts saw these pyramids from space. On one of the Apollo Missions, an astronaut, while in orbit over China, saw nine unusual dots on the surface, and took several photos. When developed and enlarged, the photos revealed nine very high pyramids, evenly spaced, in the form of a fan. The location, 170 degrees, 39 minutes East longitude, and 34 degrees, 9 minutes North latitude, is the Taibai Shan Mountain, just over 10,000 feet above sea level, the highest point in the Quin-Ling Mountains, a fair distance southwest of Xian.

In the 1970s, when communication between the U.S. and China improved, the astronaut went to China. He was interested in seeing those pyramids up close. He succeeded. Chinese authorities told him the pyramids were the graves of nine of the eleven emperors of the western Han era, and dated from 206 to 8 B.C. The height of these graves, according to Chinese sources, can be compared to a 40-story building, around 300 feet. This is comparable to Egypt’s Giza pyramids.

I’ll wager that when mapped, those Chinese pyramids are bound to show a correlation of constellations important to the Chinese, similar to that demonstrated by Robert Bauval in Egypt, the three pyramids of Giza are aligned to one another and to the Nile, in imitation of the three belt stars of the constellation Orion, and historically, as they were aligned to the Milky Way.

Hausdorf’s work in the travel industry allows him to move around the world three months of every year, chasing down evidence in support of the ancient astronaut theory. He has turned up evidence for an ancient, alien influence on several Far-East cultures, Chinese, Japanese, Tibetan, and Mongolian. He believes that alien influence can be traced to the present, to modern-day UFO cases. In both his books, he has a chapter on UFO cases in China, including abductions. (Nice to know the UFOnauts aren’t just harassing Americans.)

One of the most controversial stories is what Hausdorf calls the Chinese Roswell. It involves a UFO crash, not in 1947, but, according to estimates, 12,000 years ago! At least that’s the translation, as read by Prof. Tsum Umnui, of the strange heiroglyph on artifacts found in 1938 by Chinese archeologist Chi Pu Tei. The heiroglyphs wind from center to rim on some of the large granite stone disks, 716 of them, found in graves in the Bayan-Kara-Ula mountains. The skeletons in the graves measure at most four feet four inches tall, with heads too big for the frail looking bones. Legends in the area tell of strange yellowish, skinny humanoid beings with big heads that came from the heavens a long, long time ago. For the rest of this story, and there’s plenty more to it, tune in to the interview with Hausdorf on August 2.

Then there are the structures found recently off the coast of Japan. In the spring of 1995, divers looking for clear water heard about a remote island in Okinawa. There they came across huge stone terraces, cut in right angles, punctuated by perfect staircases, precisely cut lanes, and hexagonal columns. So far, five separate sites on three different islands have been found, all 60 to 75 feet under the sea.

Frank Joseph, author of Lost Pyramids of Rock Lake and editor of Ancient American magazine, went to Japan to investigate, and reports that the most accessible site is 170 meters from the southwest end of Okinawa, off the shore near Chatan. Other sites are just off the shore of Aguni Island and Yonaguni Island, where a pyramidal platform 80 meters long and 20 meters high, with its tip only 5 meters below the sea’s surface, was found. The structures, spread over a 500 kilometer area, seem to be oriented due south.

Joseph likens the sites to the pre-Inca city of Pachacamac, a huge, sacred city with multi-stepped pyramids built at right angles, located just outside of Lima, Peru, and the architecture of the Moches ceremonial center near Trujillo, Peru.

Joseph also points out that James Churchward, who wrote extensively about Mu or Lemuria, predicted that remnants of a powerful civilization centered in the Pacific Ocean would eventually be discovered. The Japanese are quite open to theories involving Mu; it is compatible with their own ancient traditions. And Joseph believes it is not mere coincidence that the names of Japan’s first emperors contain a mu,; Jimmu, Timmu, Kammu, are but a few. Mu translates to that which does not exist in Japanese.

Edgar Cayce talks more about Atlantis than Mu, says Joseph, but he did say that at one time, a land mass, and he never referred to Mu or Lemuria as a continent, always a land mass, was physically connected to South America. We now have scientific verification of this. Scripps Oceanographic has just put out a map of the topography of the ocean, and there, off the coast of Peru, is a sunken archipelago, called the Nasca Rise, that was once above water. Today it is less than a hundred feet below the ocean’s surface, and extends for several hundred miles.

The ancient Chinese also seemed to know about Mu. In 1900 a Taoist monk came across a cave containing a library, hidden away to avoid the Imperial edict given in 212 BC to destroy all texts dealing with the ancient past, which made reference to the Motherland, Mu, and which contained a fragment of an ancient map depicting a continent in the Pacific Ocean.

Television and magazines in Japan have had a field day with their underwater cities. Ancient mysteries researcher and translator Shun Daichi sent me a videotape with serious and extensive TV coverage that included a large, beautifully executed scale model of one of the most impressive structures, with a toy boat suspended by a wire to illustrate the height of the sea’s surface. Shun reports that you can draw a straight line connecting the underwater sites with on-land sites of similar design, ancient castles of unknown origin. Some geologists are surmising that the last time this area was above water was a minimum of 12,000 years ago, when the Ice Age ice sheets melted, raising the ocean levels.

Which leads me to two of the most puzzling questions I have about these extraordinary archeological wonders: Why, in the age of instantaneous global communication, did it take two years for the news to reach us, and why haven’t American news reports or archeological institutes reported on these newsworthy finds?

by Laura Lee @


This long-forgotten pyramid recently was
snapped from the air by army photographers
in a remote region of western China.
Col. Maurice Shehan, Far Eastern director of
Trans-world Airlines, was among the first to
report the phenomenon.

Aerial view of the Chinese Xianyang pyramid

image credit:


This is a list of Mesoamerican pyramids or ceremonial structures. There are hundreds of these done in many different styles throughout Mexico and Central America. These were made by several pre-Columbian cultures including the OlmecsMayaToltecs, and Aztecs.

Altun Ha Belize.jpgAltun Ha Belize Maya 16 200 to 900 CE

Caracol Belize Temple of the Wooden Lintel Maya
Nim Li Punit Belize Maya  400 to 800 CE Nim Li Punit has several small step pyramids.
Dos PilasGuatemalaLD-Maya  after 629 CE This pyramid’s main stairway (known as Hieroglyphic Stairway 2) contains at least eighteen hieroglyphic steps.
Dos PilasGuatemalaEl DuendeMaya   after 629 CE This temple pyramid was built by enlarging and terracing a natural hill some way from the site core, giving the impression of a single massive structure.
KaminaljuyuGuatemala Maya   250 CE Kaminaljuyu contains some 200 platforms and pyramidal mounds at least half of which were made before 250 CE. Some of these were used to hold temples on top.
El MiradorGuatemalaLa DantaMaya  300 BCE to 100 CE La Danta pyramid temple has an estimated volume of 2,800,000 cubic meters which makes it one of the largest pyramids in the world.
Calakmul MexicoThe Great Pyramid Maya
Xochitecatl MexicoThe Pyramid of Flowers   the Preclassic Period
Xochitecatl MexicoThe Spiral Building    700 BCE This is a circular stepped pyramid. The interior of the structure consists of volcanic ash. The building has no stairway giving access to the top, it was climbed by following the spiral form of the building itself.



Giza, on the southern outskirts of Cairo is the location of the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the “Great Pyramid” and the “Pyramid of Cheops”), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Kephren), and the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as “queens” pyramids, and the Sphinx. The Giza necropolis has arguably been the world’s most popular tourist destination since antiquity, and was popularized in Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Today it is the only one of the ancient Wonders still in existence.


Major pyramids at Sakkara include the Step Pyramid of Djozer – the world’s oldest monumental stone building – the Pyramid of Userkaf and the Pyramid of Teti. Also at Sakkara is the Pyramid of Unas , which retains a causeway that is amongst the best preserved in Egypt. This pyramid was also the subject of one of antiquities’ earliest restoration attempts, conducted under the auspices of one of the sons of Ramses II. Sakkara is also the location of the incomplete step pyramid of Djozer’s successor Sekhemkhet . Archaeologists believe that had this pyramid been completed it would have been larger than Djozer’s.

Abu Sir

There are a total of seven pyramids at this sight, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Dynasty. The quality of construction of the Abu Sir pyramids is inferior to those of the Fourth Dynasty – perhaps signaling a decrease in royal power or a less vibrant economy. They are smaller than their predecessors, and are built of low quality local limestone. The three major pyramids are those of Niuserre (which is also the most intact), Nferirkare and Sahure . The sight is also home to the incomplete Pyramid of Neferefre . All of the major pyramids at Abu Sir were built as step pyramids, although the largest of them – the Pyramid of Nferirkare – is believed to have originally been built as a step pyramid some 70 metres(230 feet) in height and then later transformed into a “true” pyramid by having its steps filled in with loose masonry.


Dashur is arguably the most important pyramid field in Egypt outside Giza and Sakkara, although until recently the sight was inaccessible due to its location within a military base, and hence was virtually unknown outside archaeological circles. The southern Pyramid of Sneferu , commonly known as the Bent Pyramid is believed to be the first (or by some accounts, second) attempt at creating a pyramid with smooth sides. In this it was only a partial – but nonetheless visually arresting – success; it remains the only Egyptian pyramid to retain a significant proportion of its original limestone casing, and serves as the best example of the luminous appearance common to all pyramids in their original state. The northern, or Red Pyramid built at the same location by Sneferu was later successfully completed as the world’s first true smooth-sided pyramid. Despite its relative obscurity, the Red Pyramid is actually the third largest pyramid in Egypt – after the pyramids of Khufu and Khafre at Giza. Also at Dashur is the so-called Black Pyramid of Amenemhet III .


The pyramid at Meidun is one of three constructed during the reign of Sneferu , and is believed by some to have been commenced by that pharaoh’s father and predecessor, Huni. Some archaelogists also suggest that the Meidun pyramid may have been the first unsuccessful attempt at the construction of a “true” or smooth-sided pyramid. Suffering a catastrophic collapse in antiquity, only the central parts of its stepped inner core remain standing, giving it an odd tower-like appearance that is unique among Egyptian pyramids. The hill that the pyramid sits atop is not a natural landscape feature – it is in fact the small mountain of debris created when the lower courses and outer casing of the pyramid gave way.


Amenemhet III was the last powerful ruler of the 12th Dynasty, and the pyramid he built at Hawarra, near Faiyum, is believed to post date the so called “Black Pyramid” built by the same ruler at Dashur. It is the Hawarra pyramid that is believed to have been Amenemhet’s final resting place. The huge mortuary temple that originally stood adjacent to this pyramid is believed to have formed the basis of the labyrinth mentioned by such ancient historians as Herodotus, Strabo and Diodorus Siculus, and which is said to have been the model for the labyrinth built by Daedalus for King Minos of Crete to house the Minotaur.


Two major pyramids are known to have been built at Lisht – those of Amenemhat I and his son, Senusret I (Sesostris I). The latter is surrounded by the ruins of ten smaller subsidiary pyramids. The sight which is in the vicinity of the oasis of Fayyum, midway between Dashur and Meidun, and about 100 kilometres south of Cairo , is believed to be in the vicinity of the ancient city of Iti-tawi (the precise location of which remains unknown), which served as the capital of Egypt during the 12th Dynasty.

Zawyet el-Aryan

This sight, half way between Giza and Abu Sir, is the location for two unfinished Old Kingdom pyramids. The northern structure’s owner is believed to be the Pharaoh Nebka, whilst the southern structure is attributed to the Third Dynasty Pharaoh Khaba, also known as Hudjefa, successor to Sekhemket. Khaba’s four year tenure as pharaoh more than likely explains the similar premature truncation of his step pyramid. Today it is approximately 20 metres(65 feet) in height; had it been completed it is likely to have exceeded forty(130 feet).

Abu Rawash

Abu Rawash is the sight of Egypt’s most northerly pyramid – the mostly ruined Pyramid of Djedefre, the son and successor of Khufu. Originally it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current archaelogicical consensus is that not only was it completed, but that it was originally about the same size as the Pyramid of Menkaure – the third largest of the Giza pyramids.

Il Lahun

The pyramid of Senwosret II at Il Lahun is the southernmost pyramid structure in Egypt. Its builders reduced the amount of work necessary to construct it by ingeneously using as its foundation and core a 12 metre high natural limestone hill.


For a comprehensive list of Egyptian Pyramids click here:

Cold Fusion: The efforts of mankind in the race to engineer LENR

September 16, 2012 Leave a comment

Probably the most recognizable name in Cold Fusion efforts world-wide is Andrea Rossi. It must be said that there are many notable researchers and scientists behind these progressions and I will attempt to update this section throughout the coming days to put together a comprehensive over-view of where we are in these efforts.

Read more…

Genetics and DNA

September 16, 2012 Leave a comment

Important Advance in Understanding Human Genome


The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project, an international collaboration of more than 440 scientists in 32 labs in United States, the United Kingdom, Spain, Singapore and Japan, has announced the results of a five-year study of the regulation and organization of the human genome.

Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci / the ENCODE project’s logo (Stanford University / / ENCODE project)

The results have been published in one main integrative paper and five other papers in the journalNature, 18 papers in Genome Research, six papers in Genome Biology and a series of reviews in theJournal of Biological Chemistry.

“The ENCODE project not only generated an enormous body of data about our genome, but it also analyzed many issues to better understand how the genome functions in different types of cells. These insights from integrative analyses are really stories about how molecular machines interact with each other and work on DNA to produce the proteins and RNAs needed for each cell to function within our bodies,” said Dr Ross Hardison of Pennsylvania State University, a co-author of reviews in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

The Journal of Biological Chemistry recognized that the results from the ENCODE project also would catalyze much new research from biochemists and molecular biologists around the world. Hence, the journal commissioned these articles not only to communicate the insights from the papers now being published but also to stimulate more research in the broader community,” he said.

The human genome consists of about 3 billion DNA base pairs, but only a small percentage of DNA actually codes for proteins. The roles and functions of the remaining genetic information were unclear to scientists and even referred to as ‘junk DNA.’ But the results of the ENCODE project is filling this knowledge gap. The findings revealed that more than 80 percent of the human genome is associated with biological function.

The study showed in a comprehensive way that proteins switch genes on and off regularly – and can do so at distances far from the genes they regulate – and it determined sites on chromosomes that interact, the locations where chemical modifications to DNA can influence gene expression, and how the functional forms of RNA can regulate the expression of genetic information.

The results establish the ways in which genetic information is controlled and expressed in specific cell types and distinguish particular regulatory regions that may contribute to diseases.

“The deeper knowledge of gene regulation coming from the ENCODE project will have a positive impact on medical science,” Dr Hardison said. “For example, recent genetic studies have revealed many genomic locations that can affect a person’s susceptibility to common diseases. The ENCODE data show that many of these regions are involved in gene regulation, and the data provide hypotheses for how variations in these regions can affect disease susceptibility.”

Bibliographic information: The ENCODE Project Consortium. 2012. An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome. Nature 489, 57–74; doi: 10.1038/nature11247


Studies slow the human DNA clock

Revised estimates of mutation rates bring genetic accounts of human prehistory into line with archaeological data.

18 September 2012
At 500,000 years, the dating of this skull of Homo heidelbergensis clashed with previous DNA dates for Neanderthal origins.J. TRUEBA/MSF/SPL

Now archaeologists and geneticists are beginning to tell the same story, thanks to improved estimates of DNA’s mutation rate — the molecular clock that underpins genetic dating1–4. “It’s incredibly vindicating to finally have some reconciliation between genetics and archaeology,” says Jeff Rose, an archaeologist at the University of Birmingham, UK. Archaeologists and geneticists may now be able to tackle nuanced questions about human history with greater confidence in one another’s data. “They do have to agree,” says Aylwyn Scally, an evolutionary genomicist at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Hinxton, UK. “There was a real story.”

The concept of a DNA clock is simple: the number of DNA letter differences between the sequences of two species indicates how much time has elapsed since their last common ancestor was alive. But for estimates to be correct, geneticists need one crucial piece of information: the pace at which DNA letters change.

Geneticists have previously estimated mutation rates by comparing the human genome with the sequences of other primates. On the basis of species-divergence dates gleaned — ironically — from fossil evidence, they concluded that in human DNA, each letter mutates once every billion years. “It’s a suspiciously round number,” says Linda Vigilant, a molecular anthropologist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. The suspicion turned out to be justified.

In the past few years, geneticists have been able to watch the molecular clock in action, by sequencing whole genomes from dozens of families5 and comparing mutations in parents and children. These studies show that the clock ticks at perhaps half the rate of previous estimates, says Scally.

In a review published on 11 September1,Scally and his colleague Richard Durbin used the slower rates to reevaluate the timing of key splits in human evolution. “If the mutation rate is halved, then all the dates you estimate double,” says Scally. “That seems like quite a radical change.” Yet the latest molecular dates mesh much better with key archaeological dates.

Take the 400,000–600,000-year-old Sima de Los Huesos site in Atapuerca, Spain, which yielded bones attributed to Homo heidelbergensis, the direct ancestors of Neanderthals. Genetic studies have suggested that earlier ancestors of Neanderthals split from the branch leading to modern humans much more recently, just 270,000–435,000 years ago. A slowed molecular clock pushes this back to a more comfortable 600,000 years ago (see ‘Better agreement over the human story’).


A slower molecular clock could also force scientists to re-think the timing of later turning points in prehistory, including the migration of modern humans out of Africa. Genetic studies of humans around the world have suggested that the ancestors of Europeans and Asians left Africa about 60,000 years ago. That date caused many to conclude that 100,000-year-old human fossils discovered in Israel represented a dead-end migration rather than the beginning of a global exodus, says Scally. Scally’s calculations put “out of Africa” closer to 120,000 years ago, suggesting that the Israeli sites represent a launching pad for the spread of humans into Asia and Europe.

The latest genetic dates also fit with several sites in the Middle East that contain tools apparently made by modern humans but dating to around 100,000 years ago. At that time, sea levels between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula were lower than they are now, and a wetter climate would have made the peninsula lush and habitable, perhaps beckoning modern humans out of Africa. Rose, who works one such site, in Oman, says that he “has been over the moon” since reading Scally and Durbin’s paper.

The revised molecular clock may also help to settle a debate over whether humans ventured further into Asia more than 60,000 years ago, says Michael Petraglia, an archaeologist at the University of Oxford, UK, who favours an early date.

Although a slowed molecular clock may harmonize the story of human evolution, it does strange things when applied further back in time, says David Reich, an evolutionary geneticist at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. “You can’t have it both ways.”

For instance, the slowest proposed mutation rate puts the common ancestor of humans and orang-utans at 40 million years ago, he says: more than 20 million years before dates derived from abundant fossil evidence. This very slow clock has the common ancestor of monkeys and humans co-existing with the last dinosaurs. “It gets very complicated,” deadpans Reich.

Some researchers, including Scally, have proposed that the mutation rate may have slowed over the past 15 million years, thereby accounting for such discrepancies. Fossil evidence suggests that ancestral apes were smaller than living ones, and small animals tend to reproduce more quickly, speeding the mutation rate.

Little concrete evidence supports this idea, says Reich. He agrees that the molecular clock must be slower than was thought, but says that the question is how slow. “My strong view right now is that the true value of the human mutation rate is an open question.”

(20 September 2012)



  1. Scally, A. & Durbin, R. Nature Rev. Genet. 13, 745–753 (2012).

    Show context

  2. Langergraber, K. E. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA (2012).Show context
  3. Hawks, J. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA (2012).Show context
  4. Sun, J. X. et al. Nature Genet. (2012).Show context
  5. Kong, A. et al. Nature 488, 471–475 (2012).

    Show context source:


    World’s First Genetically Modified Babies ‘Created’ in US

    World’s First Genetically Modified Babies ‘Created’ in US

    In a developing story, the Daily Mail is now reporting that the very first (admitted) group of genetically modified babies have been ‘created’ in the United States. The scientists involved reportedly announced the result on the night of June 27th, stating that 30 babies were born using genetic modification techniques. Furthermore, 2 of the babies tested were found to contain genes from a total of 3 different parents. The experiment also lasted over 3 years or more according to the researchers, which may be one of many.

    The ‘GM babies’ were born into women who had trouble conceiving their own children. In order to ‘birth’ the babies, extra genes from a female donor were inserted into the women’s eggs before they were fertilized. After conception, scientists fingerprinted 2 of the one-year-old children and confirmed that they inherited DNA from 3 adults — one man and 2 women. What this means is that due to inheriting these extra genes through the genetic modification process, they will now be able to pass them along to their offspring. In other words, these genetically modified babies — if allowed to mate with non-GM humans — could potentially alter the very genetic coding of generations to come.

    Genetecists state that this genetic modification method may one day be used to create babies “with extra, desired characteristics such as strength or high intelligence.”

    The news comes after it was previously reported by British scientists that scientists were creating human-animal ‘monsters’. Such reports highlight the fact that rampant genetic experimentation is already taking place on many humans around the world, which has led a large number of scientists to call for new rules regarding the outlandish practice. Chinese scientists have already admittedly inserted human stem cells into goat fetuses, and United States researchers have actively researched the concept of engineering a mouse with human brain cells.

    Many experts are now speaking out against the announcement, including leading fertility experts and major organizations. John Smeaton, national director of the Society for the Protection of Unborn Children, said:

    “It is a further and very worrying step down the wrong road for humanity”

.     .     .

Genes thought to affect IQ might not

Oct. 2, 2012
Courtesy of
the Association for Psychological Science
and World Science staff

Most of the genes long thought to be linked to in­tel­li­gence, simply aren’t, a new study has con­cluded.

“We are not say­ing the peo­ple who did ear­li­er re­search in this ar­ea were fool­ish,” said Chris­to­pher Chabris, a psy­cho­log­i­cal sci­ent­ist at Un­ion Col­lege in New York who co-led the stu­dy. “They were us­ing the best tech­nol­o­gy and in­form­ati­on they had avail­able.”

Nor do Chabris and his col­leagues de­ny that in­tel­li­gence is he­red­i­tary and ge­net­ic. But they say it now turns out that this in­tan­gi­ble qual­ity is probably too com­plex to sum up in a few genes. It may be some time be­fore re­search­ers can iden­ti­fy in­tel­li­gence’s spe­cif­ic ge­net­ic roots, say the re­search­ers, whose find­ings are pub­lished on­line in the re­search jour­nal Psy­cho­log­i­cal Sci­ence.

Chabris and Da­vid Laib­son, a Har­vard econ­o­mist, led an in­tern­ati­onal team of re­search­ers that an­a­lyzed a doz­en genes us­ing large da­ta sets that in­clud­ed both in­tel­li­gence test­ing and ge­net­ic da­ta. In nearly eve­ry case, the re­search­ers found that in­tel­li­gence could not be linked to the spe­cif­ic genes tested.

“We only found one gene that ap­peared to be as­so­ci­at­ed with in­tel­li­gence, and it was a very small ef­fect. This does not mean in­tel­li­gence does not have a ge­net­ic com­po­nent. It means it’s a lot harder to find the par­tic­u­lar genes, or the par­tic­u­lar ge­net­ic vari­ants, that in­flu­ence the dif­fer­ences in in­tel­li­gence,” said Chabris.

It had long been be­lieved, on the ba­sis of stud­ies of iden­ti­cal and fra­ter­nal twins, that in­tel­li­gence was a her­it­a­ble trait. The new re­search af­firms that conclusi­on. But old­er stud­ies that pick­ed out spe­cif­ic genes had flaws, Chabris said, pri­marily be­cause of tech­no­log­i­cal lim­its that pre­vented re­search­ers from prob­ing more than a few loc­ati­ons in the hu­man ge­nome to find genes that af­fect­ed in­tel­li­gence.

Al­so, “at the time, it was be­lieved that in­di­vid­ual genes would have a much larg­er ef­fect — they were ex­pect­ing to find genes that might each ac­count for sev­er­al IQ points,” Chabris ex­plained. IQ is a wide­spread meas­ure of in­tel­li­gence in which av­er­age in­tel­li­gence is scored as 100, while high­er or low­er in­tel­li­gence are scored high­er or low­er. The score is meant to mea­sure a per­son’s in­tel­li­gence as com­pared to the av­er­age for their age group, as a per­cent­age.

Chabris said additi­onal re­search is needed to de­ter­mine the ex­act role genes play in in­tel­li­gence.

“As is the case with oth­er traits, like height, there are probably thou­sands of genes and their vari­ants that are as­so­ci­at­ed with in­tel­li­gence,” he said. “And there may be oth­er ge­net­ic ef­fects be­yond the sin­gle gene ef­fects. There could be interacti­ons among genes, or interacti­ons be­tween genes and the en­vi­ron­ment. Our re­sults show that the way re­search­ers have been look­ing for genes that may be re­lat­ed to in­tel­li­gence — the ‘can­di­date gene’ meth­od — is fairly likely to re­sult in false pos­i­tives, so oth­er meth­ods should be used.”



DNA molecules can ‘teleport’, Nobel Prize winner claims

Experiment spots spooky quantum imprinting effect

A Nobel Prize winning biologist has ignited controversy after publishing details of an experiment in which a fragment of DNA appeared to ‘teleport’ or imprint itself between test tubes.

According to a team headed by Luc Montagnier, previously known for his work on HIV and AIDS, two test tubes, one of which contained a tiny piece of bacterial DNA, the other pure water, were surrounded by a weak electromagnetic field of 7Hz.

Eighteen hours later, after DNA amplification using a polymerase chain reaction, as if by magic the DNA was detectable in the test tube containing pure water.

Oddly, the original DNA sample had to be diluted many times over for the experiment to work, which might explain why the phenomenon has not been detected before, assuming that this is what has happened.

The phenomenon might be very loosely described as ‘teleportation’ except that the bases project or imprint themselves across space rather than simply moving from one place to another.

To be on the safe side, Montagnier then compared the results with controls in which the time limit was lowered, no electromagnetic field was present or was present but at lower frequencies, and in which both tubes contained pure water. On every one of these, he drew a blank.

The possible quantum effect – the apparent imprinting of the DNA on the water – is not in itself the most contentious element of the experiment, so much as the relatively long timescales over which it appears to manifest itself. Quantum phenomena are assumed to show their faces in imperceptible fractions of a second and not seconds minutes and hours, and usually at very low temperatures approaching absolute zero.

Revealing a process through which biology might display the underlying ‘quantumness’ of nature at room temperature would be startling.

Montagnier’s experiment will have to be repeated by others to have any hope of being taken seriously. So far, some scientists have been publically incredulous.

“It is hard to understand how the information can be stored within water over a timescale longer than picoseconds,” said the Ruhr University in Bochum’s Klaus Gerwert, quoted by New Scientist magazine, which broke the story (requires registration).

What does all of this mean? It could be that the propagation of life is able to make use of the quantum nature of reality to project itself in subtle ways, as has been hinted at in previous experiments. Alternatively, it could be that life itself is a complex projection of these quantum phenomena and utterly depends on them in ways not yet understood because they are incredibly hard to detect.

Speculatively, (and Montagnier doesn’t directly suggest anything so unsubstantiated), it could also be the little-understood quantum properties of the water molecule and not just its more obvious chemical bonding properties that gives it such a central role in the bio-engineering of life-forms. Water might be a good medium in which DNA can copy itself using processes that hint at quantum entanglement and ‘teleportation’ (our term).

Montagnier’s paper goes on to discuss the phenomenon he claims to have uncovered using ‘quantum field theory’ within the context of his personal interest, disease propagation.


Micro-Gravity Using Sound Waves

September 16, 2012 Leave a comment

Acoustic Levitation Video Shows Liquid Droplets Floating On Sound Waves In Midair

Acoustic Levitation

Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory have discovered a way to use sound waves to levitate individual droplets of solutions.

From Argonne Labs comes this intriguing video demonstrating the acoustic levitation of liquids on a piece of equipment developed for NASA to simulate microgravity conditions.

The acoustic levitator uses two small speakers to generate sound waves at frequencies slightly above the audible range – roughly 22 kilohertz. When the top and bottom speakers are precisely aligned, they create two sets of sound waves that perfectly interfere with each other, setting up a phenomenon known as a standing wave.

At certain points along a standing wave, known as nodes, there is no net transfer of energy at all. Because the acoustic pressure from the sound waves is sufficient to cancel the effect of gravity, light objects are able to levitate when placed at the nodes. These drops of solution remain suspended for a long period of time, thanks to the vibrational force of sound waves that keep them stationary in an air column. (Photo by Dan Harris)

To learn more how it might be used to develop pharmaceuticals, read more at Argonne’s website.

Argonne scientist Chris Benmore demonstrates his acoustic levitator, which could help to improve the efficiency and quality of pharmaceutical development. (Photo by Dan Harris)

Argonne National Laboratory seeks solutions to pressing national problems in science and technology. The nation’s first national laboratory, Argonne conducts leading-edge basic and applied scientific research in virtually every scientific discipline. Argonne researchers work closely with researchers from hundreds of companies, universities, and federal, state and municipal agencies to help them solve their specific problems, advance America’s scientific leadership and prepare the nation for a better future. With employees from more than 60 nations, Argonne is managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy‘sOffice of Science.

DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.  For more information, please visit


World Mysteries: The Voynich Manuscript

September 16, 2012 Leave a comment

Voynich Manuscript

Theories abound about the origin and nature of the manuscript. Some believe it was meant to be a pharmacopoeia, to address topics in medieval or early modern medicine. Many of the pictures of herbs and plants hint that it many have been some kind of textbook for an alchemist. The fact that many diagrams appear to be of astronomical origin, combined with the unidentifiable biological drawings, has even led some fanciful theorists to propose that the book may have an alien origin.
One thing most theorists agree on is that the book is unlikely to be a hoax, given the amount of time, money and detail that would have been required to make it.

While I may not agree with Prof. Gordon Rugg and his theory, the video below has alot of info:

Here is every page in the book:


Keshe Technology Under Suppression

September 15, 2012 3 comments

To sign the petition, scroll down to the bottom


MT Keshe Answers about Creation and Consiousness

Question: Does Awareness, Consciousness, play a part in Creation? And if so, is it the field, that all else arises into creation from?

MT Keshe: I know I promised to reply, but in short, I am at the moment down to about 3 hours of rest a night and working without much time to write in depth and answer many questions which are put to me on the forum and in e-mails.

In time we will try to reply to as many as possible, but the questions you have raised are very important to answer even partially, as we are here not only to teach man the physicality of travel into space, but at the same time to teach the terms of conduct of man once he enters the new universal community.

One would not attend a wedding in a clown outfit, unless one had never been taught that there are dress codes and codes of conduct for each occasion.

Now we are trying to teach both to enable man to take his next step and to enter the true realm of creation rather than stay in his present isolated earthman tribal home.

The book called “The Soul” which is to be published as No 9 (some advisers want this to be the next book No 4) in reality will be the last book, as once we understand the full essence of creation then through this we guide man (not just teach him) to understand the real operation of the interaction of all beings in the universe in relation to each other and himself.

In this book, which is partially written, I will explain this very comfortably and scientifically, as consciousness is the key to the operation of physicality, irrespective of the entity, be it of man or any other entity that can make decisions about their interaction with themselves and with other entities in the universe.
Consciousness is not the exclusivity of the earthman tribe, but is the cornerstone of the operation and interaction of all intellects in the universe.

Consciousness is the interactive outcome of decisions made by fields and not by matters. In time man will come to understand that Consciousness has no field strength (principal, transition and matter fields) criterion and is equal and the same for all entities in the universe. It is the central control room of physicality, or what we call tangible existence, as well as of the non-tangible.

If physicality is the Sun itself, the Soul is the field which the Sun emits unconditionally, and when these fields interact with each other and with the fields of other entities that possess both magnetic and gravitational fields, then from the interaction of these complex fields comes the creation of light, or the awareness of the existence of the other. In this interaction the observation of the light becomes the consciousness of existence of the physicality of the original entities and how the interaction will be and what the outcome can be.

Then once one sees the light from the interaction of the fields, at this point one becomes AWARE of the entity without the presence of its physicality.

For example, this is like the interaction of the Magravs of the Sun and the Earth; the interaction of four fields leads to the creation of daylight and in this light, man at his point of observation becomes conscious of the existence of all fields of the Earth and the Sun and their interaction with each other, and he is aware of the physical existence of both sources.

On the other hand if all fields of the Earth and the Sun traveled in other directions and never interacted then man would not be aware of both entities and their position and strength relative to each other at these points in the universe, even though he receives fields from both independently. But where he sees the interaction of these fields within his existence then he becomes aware of the position of these two entities in the realm of the universe.

At this moment of time, man due his physical knowledge sees everything through the eye of physicality, which is the mirage that has blinded him from the truth of creation and the real essence of creation. “O man of existence, close your eyes to your physicality, to see the reality of existence in all realms of the universe.”

In truth man is matter, which with consciousness becomes a ‘being’, and no more.

This is the reason that all prophets of the past talk, connect and communicate through the concepts of the fire or the light, according to their followers’ intellect and understanding at the time.

As light arises from the interaction of their soul’s field with the essence of the creator’s fields, in this interaction, through the light revealed to the soul of the prophet and is shown and revealed to that how the conduct of the future should be.

One does not see the creator, but the created possess fields that can interact with the fields of the creator’s presence and this leads to enlightenment, or seeing the light of creation.

Thus when we are aware of our thoughts without regarding what our physical part decides to do with itself, then we consciously become aware that consciousness is in principle the controller of the physical body.

On the other hand, its own consciousness can interact with the universal entities without the physicality of the entity and without the entities having any say in how the interaction will be, and this is the correct line of interaction of the Soul with other creatures of the universe, as with this there is no need to feed the physicality that can endanger the process of the true and correct path with others in the universe.

In time man will come to understand that consciousness is the correct means of communication with all decision-making entities in the universe, and from there on he will learn how to correct the physical operation and conduct of his body, as the consciousness touches the operation of man’s physical being more than any other fields. But man has not come to realize how much of his own fate is decided by his own consciousness fields, which are equal in strength to the strength of his own physical matters fields.

Then if man will understand this, he will understand the laws of fallibility and will never have to do, and will never do, wrong to himself and not even to others.

In reality the prophets of the past should have taught man first, from the beginning of time to man’s intellectual maturity, about the operation of the soul and consciousness before teaching him about the physical behavior of man in physical relation to each other.

For example to teach, “Thou shall not steal”, what does this means in real terms of the operation of fields in the universe?

This means, once one takes from others’ fields, from whatever different Magravs strength, then one’s own fields attain a different strength without those fields actually being given, due to the course of their motion in the universe. Hence due to the new incorrect field strength gained by the one who has taken them, his own fields will change in strength and attract or repel other fields that he comes to in his path of motion in the universe. Since these fields are not his, so the path of his motion changes and then he does not reach the desired and correct destination.

Thus man has to understand the reality about his conduct and be aware of what this interaction will bring, and this awareness of how to stay in their right path and what to do to get to the final destination becomes the consciousness of man.

Once we enter the universal community, our thoughts and awareness and its controlling ‘consciousness’ will be an open book to all in the universe as they do not see physicality, but see the interaction of the brain’s internal fields and the fields which the brain emits in response to what it would like to attain or for the body to achieve certain goals. These other entities allow man free access to their fields so that he can continue in his correct path, or they withdraw their fields from mans line of thought so that again they do not interfere in the line of man’s motion, and then mankind reaches its final correct destination.

When man interacts with his universal family in the near future, he will be assessed and judged in the open spans of the universe by his fields of thought and not by the reflection of his physical behavior.

Physicality needs presence but consciousness needs no physicality for it to be present in all domains of creation in the universe.

This means that man’s thoughts are basically a Magravs field, which emanates from the operation of his matters and this in turn becomes a reflection of fields without any tangible part. Consciousness is a part of the communication of life for all entities that can receive as well as send their line of thought in response to others’ behaviors and thoughts.

The man who understands the working of awareness and consciousness is the man who has entered the kingdom of the creator.

There are those who claim to have reached this stage through meditation, and there are those who have reached this level of understanding and behavior without realizing it, through their naturally correct conduct from their upbringing and not from fear of punishment, as has been threatened by the prophets of the past.

Punishment is the control system of physicality while consciousness is action without punishment. Punishment is for the physical man while awareness and consciousness are the attribute of the soul of the entity.

Thus from this point on that we have opened the spans of this universe and beyond to the man, at the same time we will teach man that there is no punishment in the universe. From here on this cane of control (punishment) is removed from the apparatus for the teaching of man.

From this point on man will learn that his conduct and consciousness is the means of his own control, and that he has matured enough that from now on he shall be his own awareness and consciousness, and there will be no need for the physical teachers of the past and their control method of teaching for the physical body with threats that if man physically does this or that, then he shall be punished this way or that way.

In the universe there are no wars and no greed, but a clear path of freedom from the shackles of tangibility.

Those who understand the operation of consciousness will have a wonderful time in the worlds we have opened up to man as a gift and in the freedom of the use of space, and those who have not understood will have a rough time of it until they realize that awareness and consciousness and its interaction with other entities with the same attribute sets the course of their existence in the universe.

This will be the way man will find his correct balance and path in all realms of creation according to the true teaching of the creator.

Blessed those souls who understand the thoughts and not only what is written.


US Presidential Decree and Keshe Foundation Response

Question from the Keshe forum:

Mr. Keshe, News of Barack Obama’s censorship of the Keshe technology is disgusting to all of us here in the US that have been anxiously following your developments. Could you please cite the specific Executive Order that created this situation. The White House posts allegedly all executive orders at this URL, I would like to report this on my own website, but need a specific identification to verify the claim.

 (copy below, original was removed some weeks later)

Our message to the US President.

Your Excellency President Obama,

We offer you a path towards real world peace through the development of this new technology for the whole human race, using advanced technological know-how, and we hope you are open enough to listen first and then to enact a decree that can bring about this peace.

There are times when being attacked only makes the opponent stronger; with a decree such as that of 23 April 2012, more people now want to know what is the weakness in the US defense capability that has led to such a decree.

Your Excellency President Obama,
We offer you a path towards real world peace through the development of this new technology for the whole human race

I invite you to a direct presentation of our technology to you and your cabinet, to be given on neutral ground where the president of Iran could also be present and where no one betrays anyone else, so that we can all understand the fundamental change that is about to be brought to mankind. Then let us talk about genuine world peace.

As I said in my Sunday interview in Los Angeles, let us convert the military factories of the US to provide resources for a US space organization, so that the tools of war become the craft of universal peace.

The aircraft carriers of the US will become nothing but floating bathtubs if our Magravs technology is used effectively, and the runways full of F16s and 18s and so on will be nothing but runway museums of iron birds, as these craft will not be able to fly if their electronic systems are once touched by Magravs space technology. These crafts and battleships would have to be rewired from A to Z before they could ever operate again.

President Obama, we invite you to understand this change and to let us show you the technology that is bringing it about. Then we invite you to the table of world peace.

Please sign a decree for genuine peace and not a gagging order for science and technology, which your people understand fully what we have developed as they try to protect the pride of your nation.

This is not a question of the pride of one group or country, but pride for all of us in the advancement of the human race to new levels of understanding of the universal order of creation, in which we each have our place.

Your Ambassador and Consul in Belgium have direct access to me from our previous talks and correspondence with them and would pass on any communication.

With kindest regards from a peace loving man who has developed this powerful technology for the good of mankind,

M T Keshe

Read More and follow the discussion…

To sign the petition scroll down to the bottom

Official White House Response:

Copy of the Presidential Decree:

Office of the Press Secretary
For Immediate Release April 23, 2012
– – – – – – –
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) (IEEPA), the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), section 212(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1182(f)), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code,
I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, hereby determine that the commission of serious human rights abuses against the people of Iran and Syria by their governments, facilitated by computer and network disruption, monitoring, and tracking by those governments, and abetted by entities in Iran and Syria that are complicit in their governments’ malign use of technology for those purposes, threaten the national security and foreign policy of the United States. The Governments of Iran and Syria are endeavoring to rapidly upgrade their technological ability to conduct such activities. Cognizant of the vital importance of providing technology that enables the Iranian and Syrian people to freely communicate with each other and the outside world, as well as the preservation, to the extent possible, of global telecommunications supply chains for essential products and services to enable the free flow of information, the measures in this order are designed primarily to address the need to prevent entities located in whole or in part in Iran and Syria from facilitating or committing serious human rights abuses. In order to take additional steps with respect to the national emergencies declared in Executive Order 12957 of March 15, 1995, as relied upon for additional steps in subsequent Executive Orders, and in Executive Order 13338 of May 11, 2004, as modified in scope and relied upon for additional steps in subsequent Executive Orders, and to address the situation described above, I hereby order:
Section 1. (a) All property and interests in property that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the possession or control of any United States person, including any foreign branch, of the following persons are blocked and may not be transferred, paid, exported, withdrawn, or otherwise dealt in:

(i) the persons listed in the Annex to this order; and
(ii) any person determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with or at the recommendation of the Secretary of State:
(A) to have operated, or to have directed the operation of, information and communications technology that facilitates computer or network disruption, monitoring, or tracking that could assist in or enable serious human rights abuses by or on behalf of the Government of Iran or the Government of Syria;
(B) to have sold, leased, or otherwise provided, directly or indirectly, goods, services, or technology to Iran or Syria likely to be used to facilitate computer or network disruption, monitoring, or tracking that could assist in or enable serious human rights abuses by or on behalf of the Government of Iran or the Government of Syria;
(C) to have materially assisted, sponsored, or provided financial, material, or technological support for, or goods or services to or in support of, the activities described in subsections (a)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section or any person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to this order; or
(D) to be owned or controlled by, or to have acted or purported to act for or on behalf of, directly or indirectly, any person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to this order.
(b) The prohibitions in subsection (a) of this section apply except to the extent provided by statutes, or in regulations, orders, directives, or licenses that may be issued pursuant to this order, and notwithstanding any contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date of this order.
Sec. 2. I hereby determine that the making of donations of the type of articles specified in section 203(b)(2) of IEEPA (50 U.S.C. 1702(b)(2)) by, to, or for the benefit of any person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to this order would seriously impair my ability to deal with the two national emergencies identified in the preamble to this order, and I hereby prohibit such donations as provided by section 1 of this order.
Sec. 3. The prohibitions in section 1 of this order include but are not limited to:

(a) the making of any contribution or provision of funds, goods, or services by, to, or for the benefit of any person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to this order; and

(b) the receipt of any contribution or provision of funds, goods, or services from any such person.
Sec. 4. I hereby find that the unrestricted immigrant and nonimmigrant entry into the United States of aliens who meet one or more of the criteria in section 1 of this order would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, and I hereby suspend the entry into the United States, as immigrants or nonimmigrants, of such persons. Such persons shall be treated as persons covered by section 1 of Proclamation 8693 of July 24, 2011 (Suspension of Entry of Aliens Subject to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and International Emergency Economic Powers Act Sanctions).
Sec. 5. (a) Any transaction by a United States person or within the United States that evades or avoids, has the purpose of evading or avoiding, causes a violation of, or attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this order is prohibited.
(b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this order is prohibited.
Sec. 6. Nothing in section 1 of this order shall prohibit transactions for the conduct of the official business of the United States Government by employees, grantees, or contractors thereof.
Sec. 7. For the purposes of this order:
(a) the term “person” means an individual or entity;
(b) the term “information and communications technology” means any hardware, software, or other product or service primarily intended to fulfill or enable the function of information processing and communication by electronic means, including transmission and display, including via the Internet;
(c) the term “entity” means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture, corporation, group, subgroup, or other organization;
(d) the term “United States person” means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States or any jurisdiction within the United States (including foreign branches), or any person in the United States;
(e) the term “Government of Iran” means the Government of Iran, any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran, and any person owned or controlled by, or acting for or on behalf of, the Government of Iran; and
(f) the term “Government of Syria” means the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic, its agencies, instrumentalities, and controlled entities.
Sec. 8. For those persons whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to this order who might have a constitutional presence in the United States, I find that because of the ability to transfer funds or other assets instantaneously, prior notice to such persons of measures to be taken pursuant to this order would render those measures ineffectual. I therefore determine that for these measures to be effective in addressing the two national emergencies identified in the preamble to this order, there need be no prior notice of a listing or determination made pursuant to section 1 of this order.
Sec. 9. The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State, is hereby authorized to take such actions, including the promulgation of rules and regulations, and to employ all powers granted to the President by IEEPA as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this order. The Secretary of the Treasury may redelegate any of these functions to other officers and agencies of the United States Government consistent with applicable law. All agencies of the United States Government are hereby directed to take all appropriate measures within their authority to carry out the provisions of this order.
Sec. 10. The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State, is hereby authorized to determine that circumstances no longer warrant the blocking of the property and interests in property of a person listed in the Annex to this order and to take necessary action to give effect to that determination.
Sec. 11. This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.
Sec. 12. The measures taken pursuant to this order with respect to Iran are in response to actions of the Government of Iran occurring after the conclusion of the 1981 Algiers Accords, and are intended solely as a response to those later actions.
Sec. 13. This order is effective at 12:01 a.m. eastern daylight time on April 23, 2012.
April 22, 2012.
1. Ali MAMLUK [director of the Syrian General Intelligence Directorate, born 1947]
1. Syrian General Intelligence Directorate
2. Syriatel
3. Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
4. Iranian Ministry of Intelligence and Security
5. Law Enforcement Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran
6. Datak Telecom
# # #

Keshe Foundation response

The space defense technology developed by the Keshe Foundation using magnetic and gravitational force fields (Magravs) has proved to be the best method for blocking magnetic field communication systems at any frequency.

The system is capable of jamming all communication lines and when used correctly can directly block all communication in a large area even from a distance.

This means that with a minimum effort all satellite communications can be blocked.

We tested this system 4 years ago and saw the results.

When this system is used effectively by forces that are active in a certain area, the opposite side cannot send information to its destined receiver.

The recent US decree proves their concern about how advanced the technology is and shows that the opposite side is being prevented from carrying out its operations.

Thus there is more to this decree than is seen at first glance.

In reality it shows that the US does not have any system that can overcome such a powerful and advanced technology, and by means of the decree they are trying to outlaw new technologies so that they have an excuse to label organizations like the Keshe Foundation as a rogue organization.

We are open, we stay open and we invite US scientists to join us so that we can use this technology effectively for the protection of craft in deep space.

This technology was developed by the Keshe Foundation, as described in our patent applications, so that in deep space crafts can be protected from any high level magnetic field radiation zones that are detected, and the systems and passengers can be safe when the crafts are traveling through them.

One of the uses of this new technology is to block any magnetic field carrying information throughout a large target area in space. This is how the Drum was captured, as it was blocked from receiving information from its control satellites during the procedure.

In a word, “Welcome to the real space technology,” and to seeing it working in real life on a large scale.

Our technology is on offer to the US government also, if they are prepared to accept that Iranian nuclear physicists are not necessarily betraying their nation if they share space technology with them.

We are here to bring about world peace so that mankind will be ready to join the universal community.

If sharing technology between friendly nations like Iran and the US is a criminal act then man of today has sunk lower than in the days of the cavemen.

We have invited NASA to explain their UFO technology and we are ready to do the same and explain our Magravs system to them.

This offer was made to them in an interview in a livestream conference in LA last Sunday and we will see what their response will be.

To petition this US Presidential Decree click HERE

Thank you all for your support and don’t forget to “like” our Facebook page HERE

Consciousness in Science – Part 1 and 2

September 15, 2012 2 comments


One of our main efforts of research here at E.I.R.S. is the collective investigations into the science of consciousness. With all the breakthroughs in the dynamics of our natural world, the topic of physics and consciousness is becoming more well renowned by physicists. In the spring of 2003, the Quantum Mind Conference on “Consciousness, Quantum Physics and The Brain” was held Arizona, USA. Their web site states, “Recent experimental evidence suggests quantum nonlocality occurring in conscious and subconscious brain function, and functional quantum processes in molecular biology are becoming more and more apparent. Moreover macroscopic quantum processes are being proposed as intrinsic features in cosmology, evolution and social interactions.”

When we know that we are all a part of this Non-Locality, or Oneness, we can make strides to improve our society, our nation and our world.

Below I will include links to the most ground-breaking discoveries being made on this front. Consciousness:

Experimental and Theoretical Approaches to Conscious Processing are continually growing more and more ambitious as we strive to understand what is largely only now being revealed to us through scientific research.

The Conscious Electromagnetic Information (Cemi) Field Theory:

Synchronous Firing and Its Influence on the Brain’s Electromagnetic Field:

The Physics of Collective Consciousness:

Functional MRI and the Study of Human Consciousness:

Mechanisms of Social Cognition:

The Nature of Consciousness:
Consciousness Mediated Spin II:Genesis of Self-Referential Matrix Law,& the Ontology & Mathematics of Ether:

Quantum physicists, neuroscientists, psychologists and mystics have evolved to the point where a significant paradigm shift is happening. The universe is viewed as sympathetically connected, unifying, matter, energy and consciousness.

Physics unites the many mathematical principles and perhaps one day physics will merge with spiritual and religious principles. The gap is narrowing.

By the mere sample I’ve given here, it surely demonstrates the connection of the role of science and consciousness plays. It’s an interweaving of basic fundamental processes. Science has everything to do with consciousness, it is One with it. There is no one place something “starts” and “ends”. It is a continuum of the same. Just like there are not real defining lines of the dimensional levels. All is connected.

There is a mystical world that we traverse where there is no time/space and dimensional divisions. Such as there are no divisions between the sciences of the dimensions – for all properties are found throughout the universe. There are worlds in our many realities that we haven’t begun to explore, either as scientists or mystics.

As science is discovering more and more uniquely mysterious properties of the universe, we are discovering more and more of the properties of our being and our consciousness.

All things are made up of cells each resonating together in energetic harmony. Neurocardiologists have discovered that 60% to 65% of heart cells are not muscle cells but neural cells which are identical to the neural cells in the brain. The heart and brain contains the very same neurotransmitters, the same axonal and dendritic connections.
(Mercogliano and Debus 1999).

The heart’s neural cells send information all over the body to keep the body working as one energetic harmonious whole. The mind, body and emotions are continually in dialogue with the heart.

Since our cells contain 99.999% space. That space is filled with energy moving at the speed of light. Information is moving at the speed of light!

If you really want to know what the body looks like, look up to the evening sky and see the stars, the cells of cosmic energy scattered through space. If you really want to know what the body looks like, listen to the waves and the wind for the energy they carry. If you really want to know what the body’s energy feels like, be aware of a gently breeze and sense the molecules of information breathed in and out by every person and thing that has ever lived. If you want to get a glimpse of how your whole body/heart/brain system sounds when it works collectively, listen to a symphony.

To quote Black Elk, “Peace..comes within the souls of men when they realize their relationship, their oneness, with the universe and all its powers and when they realize that at the center of the Universe dwells, Wakan Tanka, and that this center is really everywhere, it is it within each of us.”

T.H. Huxley says, “The question of all questions for humanity, the problem that lies behind all others and is more interesting than any of them is that of the determination of man’s place in Nature and his relation to the Cosmos.”

Quantum physics suggests that by redirecting our focus, our intentions and attentions, we bring in a new course of events while simultaneously releasing an existing course of events that no longer serve us. A matter of replacing, renewing and regenerating a new thought form that better serves to heighten the consciousness of everyone. We must find, understand and fully comprehend this interrelationship and oneness of our humanitarian nature and the impact on the whole of creation. We are realizing the complete being we are by understanding that even at the quantum level we affect things around us.

In finding our place in Nature, we just may save the Earth and ourselves in the process.

“To know the mechanics of the wave is to know the entire secret of Nature.”
Walter Russell


The psychodynamics of the mind as an electromagnetic structure establishes the nature and reality of consciousness as an interdimensional energy process. It is an electrical process of cause and effect.

Our consciousness determines our vibration (frequency and amplitude) When we realize that time and space are really ONE I think we then go beyond a simple understanding. This is what was talking about concerning frequency (time) and amplitude (energy)…and time traveling – and to me, this would mean being spiritually energized to walk in the 4th dimension freely. According to physics states the fourth dimension exists (subsequently physicist say 10 dimensions exist that they have mathematically figured so far). We can thus apply it to other spiritual areas as in various mysticism practices.

When our energy-amplitude is raised higher it is synonymous with our frequency (time) getting higher. When our frequency raises the distance between the waves are closer, therefore shortening time considerably. So Time is the distance between two points. What your amplitude-energy is determines how efficient you travel that time line.

For instance, You are standing by me…you raise your energy, which raises your frequency [if you are efficient at it {efficient in science is least amount of work for the energy expended)]. You dart across the room and come back to standing by me. I do not see you – except for the transition period of your coming and going. You might look like a fuzz of light at first..(dart across the room and come back) then a fuzz of light again. This is all that would be noticeable. Or perhaps if one is in movement while this energy transition is taking place, we may observe a “blurring” and see many different phases as in seen in someone taking consecutive pictures of a track and field long jumper. The realities are “blurred” together, and as physics states, can be seen in the multiple dimensions at once.

This parallels the concept of the Superstring theory which assumes there are an infinite and alternate series of parallel universes that exist. The viewpoint of many theoretical physicists: light is a vibration of the unseen 4th dimension. What is light? Light, electricity, and magnetism are manifestations of the same thing called electromagnetic radiation that encompasses the electromagnetic spectrum in which only a small fraction of light is visible to us.

When we do the “dart across the room” experiment, only the small visible light will be seen as a fraction of the whole energetic transition.


When we resonate as in the above example, it can also be viewed as “musical notes” that represents a mode of vibration, a distinct resonance or particle. Michio Kaku a physicist and author of “Hyperspace” states, “Matter is nothing but the harmonies created by this vibrating string. The laws of physics can be compared to the laws of harmony allowed on the string. The universe itself, composed of countless vibrating strings, would then be comparable to a symphony.”

“The energy of the heart, right down to our DNA is musical and rhythmic in nature. Geneticist, Susumu Ohno at the Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope in Duarte, CA, has translated the 4 nucleotides on the strands of DNA. When performed, listeners compared it to Bach, Brahms and Chopin. Listeners were moved to tears.”

“The universe consists solely of waves of motion…There exists nothing other than vibration.” relates Walter Russell in “A New Concept of the Universe”. In vibratory physics, the principles that make sound into harmonious music are the same principles that govern all associating vibrations throughout the universe – and that includes everything that there is. Vibrations are dynamic things not unlike “living” things since they are in a mutual state of “harmony”.

When sound harmonics form direct harmonic relations the two vibrating sounds and their chords of vibration are said to be sympathetic to each other. In other words, resonance – like attracts like. This combined frequency dictates that what happens to one vibratorily happens to the other simultaneously in varying degrees of harmony or dissonance. This is the Law of Cycles as presented by John W. Keely’s “Law of Sympathetic Vibratory Physics”.

“Music is formless and is therefore the perfect expression of the formless.”
Innayat Khan

Musical notes or sounds can be converted numerically as in the example in the previous section regarding the Fibonacci numbers found in nature. According to mathematics principles, a series of vibrations will multiply many times its own pitch, thus increasing harmonically all those that are near. This is the Law of Harmonic Pitch.

This multiplication of frequency and amplitudes is thought of in relation to the Ascension process. All things are energy, thus our “energy bodies” are becoming more attuned, reaching a higher vibrational rate, to the dynamic energetic force of the Universe. Extending and expanding vibrational rates happens in nature and we are merely a part of nature, so we should too, in theory, be capable of “ascension” as dense physical material beings.


“He made the whole world an instrument of sound, and an instrument for carrying messages, resounding praise to the Creator of all.
Frank Waters – The Book of the Hopi

There is something called the Sacred Sound Current which correlates to the spiritual Hindu “OM” and the Sufi “HU”, and the Sant Mat “Shabd”. This Music of the Spheres, Logos or Word as called in mystical teachings, goes beyond our limited spoken language. Such ethereal music is referred to also as the Sound of God or the Breath of God since the sound permeates all things. And as we know, all things are composed of energy.

This all-pervading sound in the current of the Ocean of Consciousness is believed to be the connecting link between God and man. The divine currents are always playing a symphony of ethereal music; however, it does not become audible until we have progressed spiritually enough to hear with the inner ear. Additionally, many mystics, ancient and modern, have reported seeing various colors with the inner eye(s) while in meditation.

As physics deems, all is in a vibrational state, and thus can be converted into mathematical renditions, musical notes and color frequencies. Shabd is believed to be the pinnacle point of all the powers of nature in which, according to scriptures, is the method in which God creates.

I dwell in undefiled Light and a Thought revealed itself perceptibly through the great Sound…And it is a Word by virtue of the Sound; it was sent to illumine those who dwell in darkness…I am a Light that illuminates the All. I am the Light…”
Trimorphic Protennoia – Nag Hammadi

Light and Sound is also viewed as synonymous with each other in the ancient scriptures. This has been mentioned in various contexts within this site as well. They are Interconnected and part of the Whole within the wave/particle duality.

We can parallel the holographic universe concept with what Philo of Alexandria’s wrote circa 40 CE, “The whole creation, this entire world perceived by our senses is a copy of the Divine Image…But the shadow of God is his Word which he used like an instrument when he was making the world. And this shadow, and, as it were, model, is the archetype of other things…” We can also note the similarity to Carl Jung’s archetypes within the collective unconscious.

“The musician is very close to mysticism, far closer than the philosopher…because music is meaningful without any words; it is meaningful simply because it rings some bells in your heart..creates a synchronicity between you and itself, when your heart starts resonating in the same way, when you start pulsating in the same way.”
Osho, Philosophia Ultima


There are known quantitative frequencies that have been measured that illustrate the body and energy connections with comparative measurements to the world around us:

^ = means to the power of 10^-8, 10 the minus 8 power

Gamma Rays 10^18 to 10^26hz
X rays 10^16 to 10^20hz
Ultraviolet Light (UV) 10^15 to 10^17hz
Visible Light 10^4.7 to 10^15hz
Infrared Rays 10^11 to 10^4.7hz
Radar Waves 10^9.5 to 10^11.5hz
Microwaves 10^8 to 10^9.5hz
Television Waves 10^6 to 10^8hz
Radio Waves 10^1to 10^6.5hz
Elf Waves 10^1hz

Earths Ionosphere Cavity Resonance – Schuman Field ranges from 1 Hz to 30 Hz – Radiation Spectrum 

Audio20 20,000 Hz
Ultrasonic 20,000 Hz – 100-kHz – 10 MHz
Radiofrequency 150KHz-1.5 MHz
High Radio Frequency RF 1.5MHz-40 MHz
Very High Radio Frequency VHF 40MHz-100MHz
Ultrahigh Radio Frequency UH over 100MHz



Alpha 8-13 cycles/sec – relaxed alert
Beta 14-30 -intense mental concentration, agitation
Theta 4-7 Hypnogogic
Delta 5-3.5 Sleeping

Human Tolerances to sinusodal vibration

Head Pain 13-30Hz
Impaired Speech 13-20Hz
Jaw Pain 6-8Hz
Chest Pain 5-7Hz
Abdominal Pain 4.5 – 10 Hz
Human Body Cell 1,520,000 to 9,460,000 Hz
Upper Limit of Human Hearing 15,000 Hz

Molds, viruses, bacteria, worms, mites range from 77 KHz to 900KHz

Warts 400-430Kz
Tapeworms 420-450Khz
Mites 640KHz – 850KHz
Ant 1000 to 1200KHz
Goldfish 900 to 1500Khz
Chameleon 1000 to 6000KHz
Cat 1500 to 8000Khz

“Biological systems are influenced by the terrestrial electrical environment. This environment includes electric fields, magnetic fields, field modulations, and aerion(positive and negative) concentrations, and biological waves. Nature ordains harmonious variations of these factors. The human organism exhibits revealing electrical characteristics.

“Electromagnetic brain waves (0.1 to 30hz) occur at frequencies paralleling those of terrestrial sferics and the Schuman resonance. Decision making abilities are subordinate to alpha, beta, gamma(.01-5hz), theta(4 – 7hz), and delta(0.1-4hz) brain rhythms with their related states of consciousness.”
Symposium on Biological Effects and Measurement of Biofrequency/Microwaves, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, FDA – Critical Aspects of Human Versus Terrestrial Electromagnetic Symbiosis, E. Stanton Maxey, M.D. , 1977


As we have learned thus far, all life, coexisting together at the same time, is both matter and space: movement and stillness, sound and silence, light and darkness. As we have seen earlier, the wave/particle duality (Non-Locality) means that everything is joined or connected together. This duality also means that objects that appear to have seemingly opposite properties are of the same substance but in a different form or density of a vibrational level.

It is believed that Earth is deemed as a “free will zone”. There is an ongoing battle between the positive and negative forces, the dark vs. light. Scientifically speaking, there is no difference, just differences in frequencies and amplitudes. Simply speaking, we are all one.

“light and shade, long and short, black and white, can only be experienced in relation to each other; light is not independent of shade, nor black of white. There are no opposites, only relationships.”
Lankavatara Sutra From “Buddha Speaks”
Anne Bancroft 2000

Another example of this polarity principle is found in sound harmonics. Fields may be enharmonic on one level but harmonic on different levels. Enharmonic would be like plucking a guitar string and allowing it to vibrate freely. The sound and the frequencies of the corresponding vibration are no longer exactly in the same frequency ratio. Harmonics, is the vibration multiples of the same frequency.

The Taoists also viewed the dynamic interplay between the polar opposites as yin and yang. This pair of opposites shares a polar relationship where the two poles are dynamically linked to the other and found throughout nature.

This idea of implicit unity of all opposites can be extremely difficult to accept. However paradoxical it may seem to some, Eastern philosophies have always been considered this as essential for attaining enlightenment to go ‘beyond earthly opposites,’ and in China the polar relationship of all opposites lies at the very basis of Taoist thought. In the Tao of Physics, “Thus Chuang Tzu says, The “this” is also “that.” The “that” is also “this.” . . . That the “that” and the “this” cease to be opposites is the very essence of Tao. Only this essence, an axis as it were, is the center of the circle responding to the endless changes.”

This ancient wisdom of duality is the essence of the Tao. It also appears to be the essence of physics.

“Every explicit duality is an implicit unity.”
Alan Watts

Heraclitus the Greek philosopher also realized that all opposites have a unity and relativity. “The way up and down is one and the same,” and “God is day night, winter summer, war peace, satiety hunger.”

Science and religion also represent a complimentary pair of polar opposites residing within a highly complex paradox. If we view these opposites as the ends of the light spectrum, we have a diverse range of human culture and ideals. These cultural dimensions in this range quantify the ideal of “unity of diversity”, biologically, ecologically and sociologically. In “The Wisdom of Thich Nhat Hanh”, he eloquently says, “Realizing the interdependent nature of dust, flowers, humans, we see that unity cannot exist without diversity. Unity and diversity interpenetrate each other fully.”

The full magnitude of the paradox disappears in the light of diverse duality.

“Life starts with the knowledge of diversity, but the awareness of unity is the pinnacle of life.”
Hazrat Inayat Khan

The Kybalion:

The Kybalion encompasses the study of “The Hermetic Philosophy of Ancient Egypt and Greece”. This is considered as the life work of Hermes Trismegistus who was considered to be the “scribe of the gods”. This Greco-Egyptian philosopher and mathematician reportedly had written tens of thousands of volumes of books revealing to humankind the healing arts, magic, writing, astrology, science, chemistry and philosophy. This was a time of unity between the scientific and religious studies.

Hermes also built several pyramids and reportedly even taught the great mathematician Pythagoras. Oddly enough, Hermes is considered the “Great Central Sun of Occultism”. Perhaps Hermes was the living embodiment of duality as he inscribed some of the earliest accounts of the secret of the ultimate reconciliation between the meta-physical science and religion. His wisdom follows in excerpts from the Kybalion. The parallels to “modern” thinking are astounding.

“Everything is Dual; everything has poles; everything has its pair of opposites; like and unlike are the same; opposites are identical in nature, but different in degree; extremes meet; all truths are but half-truths; all paradoxes may be reconciled.”

“The same Principle manifests in the case of “Light and Darkness,” which are the same thing, the difference consisting of varying degrees between the two poles of the phenomena”

“The “Art of Polarization becomes a phase of “Mental Alchemy” known and practiced by the ancient and modern Hermetic Masters. An understanding of the Principle will enable one to change his own Polarity, as well as that of others, if he will devote the time and study necessary to master the art.”

“The teachers claim that illustrations of this Principle may be had on every hand, and from an examination into the real nature of anything. They begin by showing that Spirit and Matter are but the two poles of the same thing, the intermediate planes being merely degrees of vibration. They show that THE ALL and The Many are the same, the difference being merely a matter of degree of Mental Manifestation.”

By looking carefully at the nature of opposites, we might realize that each pole actually incorporates its opposite, in one form or another – as an essential component of the whole.

“To understand the whole it is necessary to understand the parts. To understand the parts, it is necessary to understand the whole. Such is the circle of understanding.” – Ken Wilber, Eye of Spirit

“We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make our world.” – Buddha

Thought is a great dynamic force with tremendous power. A simple atom radiates an electromagnetic field or EMF. A molecule radiates yet a stronger electromagnetic field. A large number of molecules form a cell in which the human brain contains at least 200 million such cells. These atomic waves seem to include the emotions and are thought to be superimposed within the EMF frequencies. These vibrations are sent out into the physical world extending outward into the “non-physical” world. The historian Arthur Koestler refers to this as the capacity of the human psyche to “act as a cosmic resonator”. Thoughts paired with Intent equals a very powerful mixture of “mental stuff”.

Thoughts and emotions happen as a result of you interactions with the world based on your perception of past experiences. It how you perceive this world of events that form our thought processes that becomes reactions and behaviors, unconsciously or consciously. Our thoughts create our feelings, emotions, behavior and what is attracted and magnetized into your life.

In minding your thoughts, there is also a Japanese principle known as the “Kototama Principle” meaning “word soul”. When one develops the right connection to language and words, this deep connection “becomes a ‘mirror’ against which one reflects his concerns in order to have a better sense of their nature, place, and relationship to a totality.” This “hidden” philosophy is just now re-emerging as our understanding how thought and feelings affect our realities.

Emotion is the fuel of creation…… “everything you dwell upon in your mind and heart, everything that you believe in, is drawn into physical manifestation. This is happening more and more quickly. As the masters have advised you for thousands of years”…

The very fabric of space/time that makes up the world is composed of threads and collectively we can, and we do, change and bend it to the will toward a love-centered reality. Love is not only an emotion, is also a genuine power in and of itself. The world is not set in “physical laws” or “immutable constants” it is ever changing, always fluctuating and we too change that with the tiniest thought.

“Thank goodness for feelings that create our emotions. Feeling and emotion are what will ignite your desire to know the love that is within you.” 
Alana, The Seven Sacred Steps

The Brain:

“The human brain being formed of an inestimable number of spherical resonators, termed in medical science nerve cells, forming the gray matter of the brain, these minute spheres take up the thought force which permeates all space in endless waves, eternally active. This force we term atomolic; the cells are composed of *atomoles, whose vibratory motions under the action of universal thought force result in the phenomena of thought, cognition, intellection, etc. Understanding this, no one should continue to feel surprise at the caring emotions and impulses of a human being in an undeveloped state, as only by developed WILL can the motions of this force be directed.”
(*Atomoles are elementary units of matter uniform in size and weight, and exist in solid, liquid, gaseous, and isolated forms. “Keely and His Discoveries” by John Ernst Worrell Keely)

A physics theory that was predicted in 1925, that resulted in the ever popular example of superconductivity in 1995, is The Bose- condensation.

This condensation is viewed as the most highly ordered structures in nature. This property is equivalent to a laser but the particles behave as a single particle and seem to possess a form of free will. The energies merge to become part of the whole. The Bose- condensate was later applied to living tissues and the results were astonishing for quantifying human consciousness.

In 1989 the British psychiatrist Ian Marshall, showed whenever the condensate in the brain is excited by an electrical field, conscious experience occurs. In his studies, the millions of neurons in the brain would maintain coherent thought processes, the neurons working as one structure. In other studies, it has also been determined by the encephalograph that all reasoning processes are actual waveform transmissions. Additionally, quantum wave function of the brain is not completely random and seems to have a “phase difference” which implies the parallels of mind and body to the duality of the wave and particle. The wave aspect of nature yields the mental; the particle aspect of nature yields the material.

Nobel Prize winner Ilya Prigione of the University of Texas is studying the “spontaneous formation of coherent structures,” how chemical and other kinds of structures evolve patterns out of chaos. Karl Pribram, a neuroscientist at Stanford University, has proposed that the brain may be a type of “hologram”. He theorizes the brain is a pattern and frequency analyzer which creates reality by interpreting frequencies from beyond space and time dimensions. On the basis of this model, the physical world “out there,” is, in Pribram’s words, “isomorphic with”–that, the same as, the processes of the brain.

Again, referencing to the physicist David Bohm, he writes, “in the deep structure of the brain. The new meaning will produce different thoughts, and therefore an entirely different function of the brain…As this changes, the whole universe changes.”

“Our destiny changes with our thought; we shall become what we wish to become, do what we wish to do,when our habitual thought corresponds with our desire.”
Orison S. Marder

In a New York Times article dated April 26th, 2003, Tenzin Gyatso of Dharamsala, India, wrote a column about his recent investigation of emotions and behavior. This being a recent publication of the science of the emotions and the mind in Buddhism, in which many such similar scientific studies have been done.

“It is for this reason that I visited the neuroscience laboratory of Dr. Richard Davidson at the University of Wisconsin. Using imaging devices that show what occurs in the brain during meditation, Dr. Davidson has been able to study the effects of Buddhist practices for cultivating compassion, equanimity or mindfulness. For centuries Buddhists have believed that pursuing such practices seems to make people calmer, happier and more loving. At the same time they are less and less prone to destructive emotions.

Dr. Davidson tells me that the emergence of positive emotions may be due to this: Mindfulness meditation strengthens the neurological circuits that calm a part of the brain that acts as a trigger for fear and anger. This raises the possibility that we have a way to create a kind of buffer between the brain’s violent impulses and our actions.

Dr. Davidson using electroencephalographs to measure brain waves. According to Dr. Davidson, the abbot had the highest amount of activity in the brain centers associated with positive emotions that had ever been measured by his laboratory. After eight weeks, Dr. Davidson found that in these people, the parts of their brains that help to form positive emotions became increasingly active.

But reflection shows that in our lives much of our suffering is caused not by external causes but by such internal events as the arising of disturbing emotions. The best antidote to this disruption is enhancing our ability to handle these emotions.”


We have all heard that laughter is the best medicine. The emotions that come from humor and laughter help people cope better with the stress of daily life. Studies have shown that people who laugh often live longer and are much healthier compared to those that find it difficult to laugh due to life’s circumstances and personality types. This common reflex affects the body by activating the cardiovascular system, helps lower blood pressure and also exercises the muscles of the body. Research has shown that parts of the limbic system are involved in laughter as well. The limbic system is a primitive part of the brain that is involved in emotions and helps us with basic functions necessary for survival.

Dr. Lee S. Berk, at Loma Linda University School of Medicine and Public Health in California, and endocrinologist Stanley Tan, studied various groups of adults and found that laughter also stimulates our endocrine system and the pituitary gland, which in turn, stimulates release of endorphins and enkephalins, natural painkillers that are chemical cousins to opiates such as morphine and heroin. They found that both arms of the immune system got a boost out of laughter. Other studies have shown laughter improved functioning in those with breast cancer, marital stress and also those in the grieving process.

Silvia Cardoso, a behavioral biologist reports, “Repeated short, strong contractions of the chest muscles, diaphragm and abdomen increase blood flow into our internal organs, and forced respiration–the ha! ha!–makes sure that this blood is well oxygenated. Muscle tension decreases, and indeed we may temporarily lose control of our limbs, as in the expression “weak with laughter”. It may also release brain endorphins, reducing sensitivity to pain and boosting endurance and pleasurable sensations. Some studies suggest that laughter affects the immune system by reducing the production of hormones associated with stress, and that when you laugh the immune system produces more T-cells.”

Recent surveys indicate that laughter can enhance the quality of our conversations and productivity and social interactions. It simply makes people feel closer to each other. In his book, “Laughter: A Scientific Investigation”, Provine says “that laughter is the oil in the social machine, helping human interactions run more smoothly”.

Laughter sounds also have on emotional responses in listeners. Recent studies “support the notion that one important function of laugh acoustics is to influence the emotional responses of listeners,” the researchers from the Acoustic Society of America meeting conclude.

I had stated in the Frequency and Sound portion of this site, “The universe consists solely of waves of motion…There exists nothing other than vibration.” relates Walter Russell in “A New Concept of the Universe”.

In vibratory physics, the principles that make sound into harmonious music are the same principles that govern all associating vibrations throughout the universe – and that includes everything that there is. Vibrations are dynamic things not unlike “living” things since they are in a mutual state of “harmony”.


“David Bohm summarizes M=E=I formula (matter = energy = information) when he writes: ‘there is a limitless amount of information enfolded into the structure of the universe and we are a manifestation of that energy. Every body event, whether the workings of enzymes, neuropeptides, hormones, blood, or skin, is an info-energetic event.'”

“Science has discovered startling new possibilities regarding how we think, feel, love, heal and find meaning in our life…research suggests that the heart thinks, cells remember and that both of these processes are related to an as yet mysterious, extremely powerful, but very subtle energy. Science may be taking the first steps to understanding more about the ancient shamans/healers/leaders – the energy of the human spirit and the coded information that is the human soul.” (Pearsall 1998).

Many cardiologists have combined their knowledge of biology and new physics – the study of subtle energy and the invisible atomic world and modern cardiology. Energy cardiology is based on the “dynamic systems memory theory”, the idea that all systems are constantly exchanging mutually influential energy, which contains information that alters the systems taking part in the exchange. In another section of my web site I wrote, “Our billions of heart cells are able to form a quantum energy generator…by laws of the quantum world such as nonlocality…the info-energetic connection that constitutes all systems in the Universe.”


Another field, Kinesiology, has made strides in determining feelings and emotions on the well-being of the body. David R. Hawkins, MD, PhD. conducted a 29 year study that demonstrated the human body becomes stronger or weaker depending on a person’s mental state using kinesiology, or muscle testing. Dr. Hawkins developed a scale of 1-1000 that maps human consciousness: 200 (or 20,000 cycles per second) weakens the body and from 200 to 1000 makes the body stronger. At various points above this are intellect, psychology, science, genius, heart and enlightenment which move us from duality to non-duality. This Map of Consciousness is based on a logarithmic scale which means there is an enormous increase in power with even a small increase in the number on the scale.

The lowest vibration rate is described as “Force”. This exhibits a weak kinesiologic response with a vibration under 200 which includes shame, then guilt, apathy, grief, fear and anxiety, craving, anger and hate. All these feelings weaken you. Levels at 200 and above are described as “Power,” which elicit a strong kinesiologic response. At 250 you have neutrality and trust – this strengthens you.

Going up on the scale there is: willingness, optimism, acceptance and forgiveness, reason and understanding, love and reverence, joy and serenity.

Courage calibrates at 200 
Willingness calibrates at 310
Reason calibrates at 400 
Unconditional Love calibrates at 500
Joy, and the ability to communicate healing energies to another calibrates at 540
Gratitude calibrates at 560
Praise at 570
Peace and bliss is rated at 600
Enlightenment and Ineffability at 700-1000.

Dr. Hawkins conjectures the great scientists such as Newton and Freud calibrate at 499 and Carl Jung calibrates at 540, the highest level of the intellect we have known to this point.

At the highest end of the kinesiological scale of human experience, 600 to 1000, are qualities that transcend duality. This is the level of “enlightenment” and “pure bliss” of consciousness.

The highest calibration in this study was 700 by Mother Theresa who exuded peace and joy by her mere presence. Dr. Hawkins reports that Jesus, Krishna, Buddha, the greatest prophets recorded in human history all calibrate at a scale at 1000 along with their messages of Unity, Peace and Love calibrated near 1000.

Cycles Conversion of Hawkin’s scale illustrate:

Hawkin’s Scale
Cycles P/Second = Hz
kHz or kc/s

Please reference the section on Frequency which has a listing of comparative measurements

The frequency from light, sound, to physiological functions (as demonstrated in the Frequency section) along with bio-scientific studies show definite resonances in all things and ultimately shows the dual nature of our physical being and how we are energetically linked to everything else.

“Energy waves build the human body by radiation in intrauterine life, as a pattern of energy currents, and continue to maintain it by this energy flow as wireless currents.” 
Dr. Randolph Stone -Polarity Therapy Book 1


To “feel” combines our emotions merged with our thoughts and hence energy follows attention. When we pray we realize and acknowledge there are many possibilities and by the act of praying-focusing-feeling, we direct that energy into an opportunity that we *choose* to experience – of all the possibilities available.

A Tibetan Abbott said on prayer, “Feeling – the object of each prayer is to achieve “feeling”. When we pray, we feel on behalf of all beings, everywhere. We are all connected. We are all expressions of one life. No matter where we are, our prayers are heard by all. We are all the same one.”

“Unless you, yourself, enter the image and think from it, it is incapable of birth.”

Gregg Braden and others have spoken about the power of prayer and the physics principles at work. “Through the language of time waves, quantum outcomes, and choice points…” we determine our future probabilities. “Our individual choices merge into our collective response to the present” whose rings span far into the depths of time/space.”

The matrix grid of consciousness, Jung’s collective unconscious, is the nervous system for the earth, our thoughts effect this system and everything contained therein.

The universe can be crafted with a simple working of your will. Mages and mystics and shamanic healers have taught this truth throughout the ages. Thoughts and feelings manifest itself into reality. This makes us co-creators with the universe. Quantum physics even suggest that by redirecting our focus and our attention we can bring about about a new course of events.

“Everything we think, feel, and do has an effect on our ancestors and all future generations and reverberates throughout the universe.”
Thich Nhat Hanh

A tiny emotion becomes a thought of a one raindrop, thousands of drops turn into a flood. There is true magic-alchemy in the power of will, we shape the world by our desires, thoughts, intents and actions. So in relation to mankind’s “ascension” it is the product of many working, thinking, acting, and living as a higher unit of collective thought energy processes.

In Kabalistic teachings there is a saying, “think well of everyone”. In Kabbalah, what we do in this world always has effects in the spiritual dimension. There is also the term “cycle of reciprocity”: what is going out from your mind is always coming back to you.

Dhyani Ywahoo, a Cherokee spiritual teacher, says it beautifully: “Be aware of the power of mind, remember that we are all in process of unfolding. We can choose, we can weave; we hold the form, we dance it, and the moment comes when it is recalled in each of us…By the power of its sound it is a reality…The Beauty Path, the Great Peace, is the meeting of ourselves, the perceptions of our minds, and the cessation of those waves and thought forms that create discord. Let us sow the seed of peace in all our actions, thoughts and words.”

The Spiritual Path assists “mortal man in gaining and understanding of his/her place within the Divine Order and allows mankind to experience the greater purpose of evolution from a more Universal perspective.”

“When mankind perceives reality through an open, evolved heart chakra, mortal man experiences reality by “feeling” the energy states of that reality.” We can safely say that real truths cannot be said, talked about or even written, they must be lived, experienced and felt.”

“Remember to be cautious with your thoughts and your words; they are the tools of creation.
Remember cause and effect.
Remember there is nothing more important than love.”
(Mary Sparrowdancer – “The Love Song of The Universe”)

Energy as Consciousness in Science

Consciousness is not always a favorite topic of scientists and other thinkers in that it is hard to define.  The dictionary includes awareness and a state of being awake.  For our purposes, a more comprehensive definition is, “the totality of a person’s thoughts and feelings.”  Note that this would include emotion, thinking, and physical bodily reactions.

On the one hand, one needs to distinguish between Consciousness (the apparently unique quality of humans being aware — “I think, therefore I am”), a transcendent mind (which has no physical basis and may be construed as the Consciousness vehicle without portfolio — or physical reality), a mechanistic brain (which depends upon electrochemical interactions), and the body (the physical presence we normally associate with a reality which includes matter — the latter the “stuff” of the physical universe).  Quantum physics has, for example, demonstrated the links between Consciousness and Physics — and also shed enormous light on Mind-Body discussions, as well as Mind-Matter interactions. (6/1/05) There is also what might be termed a Christ Consciousness, or the ultimate in Intermingled Realities.

The French philosopher Michel Foucalut once claimed, “All modern  thought is permeated by the idea of thinking the unthinkable.”  Perkins has said: “Some physicists even think there might be bizarre links between gravity, the weird properties of the quantum world, and that most enduring of human mysteries — consciousness.” [1]  Well, yeah!  Duh!  

Unfortunately, Consciousness Research has been largely ignored by the physical sciences.  This is despite an array of encounters in modern physics which keep alluding to consciousness, but which manage in some way to avoid ever calling it by name.

For example, there is the fundamental problem of an observer affecting a measurement by the simple act of taking the measurement — as embodied in Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle (and in accordance with its varied interpretations). Moreover, the attitude of the observer, or even the ability of the observer to see a result (i.e. not being blinded by an overriding, contrary Paradigms), can make a profound difference in the outcome of an intended or accidental experiment. Essentially, what we cannot imagine, we cannot see.

Another problem arises from Maxwell’s Demon, the devilish mental concept which forced physics to elevate information up to the same level of importance and impact as energy when dealing with the Laws of Thermodynamics and reversing the direction of Entropy.  Information is about Communication, the transmission of knowledge, intelligence, even enlightenment.  In this context (Maxwell’s Demon, et al) information constitutes: a means by which an unordered structure can become ordered (i.e. Entropy reversed).

In physics, this was acknowledged by identifying information as a form of energy.  However, not to have taken the immediate, logical route of calling the solution to the enigma posed by Maxwell’s Demon a form of consciousness (instead of the more benign word, information), is one of the more fascinating examples of the blind leading the blind in the practice of physics.

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Knowing have contributed to the information link to experimental results, and in fact, created the unique and demonstrable “proof” that observation (the access to information) changes the results of experiment.  This is the stuff of Creating Reality, creating matter or events by simply acquiring information, by simply observing what is transpiring.

There is no way to overemphasize the importance of modern quantum physics and its impact upon our understanding of a transcendental mind with consciousness.

Consciousness can be described as taking unconnected and chaotic properties or bits of data and correlating them into an ordered structure or schema.  Consciousness is thus anti-entropic to the extent of individual systems within the universe being anti-entropic, and both information and consciousness begin to take on some of the same properties with regard to physics.  Both information and consciousness become forms of energy.

Consciousness may require the transformation of more traditional forms of energy in order to accomplish consciousness’ ability to correlate — to be anti-entropic.  However, the physics of The Fifth ElementZero-Point Energy, and so forth — as well as countless traditions and philosophical understandings from the beginning of recorded history — have concluded that there exists an energetic connection between all aspects of the universe.  Thus the energy requirements — which utilize means outside the pathways currently prescribed by mainstream science — become irrelevant among systems within the universe.

Furthermore, the basic objection to any supposed violation of the Law of Conservation of Energy (i.e. the “second law” in the Laws of Thermodynamics) is incorrect because the law is only valid with regard to a closed system.  Because of the energetic connection between all aspects of the universe, there are no closed systems within this universe, and only the universe may be regarded as a closed system.  (Of course, if there are Multiple Universes, even this proviso may not be strictly obeyed.  Sorry about that.)

Arthur Young has referred to the third derivative — equivalent to The Fifth Element’s third derivative term — as “control”, and in doing so implied that consciousness is the underlying aspect of the added term in the equations of physics.  But why should this term leap from a simply description of a small aspect of physics to that of consciousness?

Arthur Young tried to answer this by likening the situation to the case where all machines ultimately require a form of control.  Such a control is intentional, and is based on the physical distinction between accelerating and causing acceleration.

The position of something, or even the fact that an object is in motion, or is changing its motion, is not a matter which requires choice.  These are deterministic in that they follow the natural laws of science.  They just are.  It’s here, it’s moving, it’s moving under the influence of gravity, and that’s about it.  There is no further need for action, for initiating a change for some purpose, or for redirecting the motion of an object.

Significantly, each of the three variables — position, velocity, and acceleration — all come under the purview of obeying the natural laws.  Any object anywhere in the universe is being influenced by the laws, and the only actions occurring due to these influences are changes in position and/or velocity.  There are no natural physical laws which induce a change in acceleration.  [Although there can be changes in the direction of acceleration.]

The third derivative, i.e. the rate of change of acceleration, is therefore outside the natural physical laws as we typically envision them.  There may be other deterministic physical laws which govern the third derivative, but these same meta-physical laws, these additions to what we now know as the laws of physics, appear to include choice, control, intent, and ultimately, consciousness.  In other words, there may be the Laws of Consciousness, but while we may have experienced them from our inception, we have yet to formulate them in the form of equations (equations often being the goal of mathematical physicists).

Consciousness — The Mother of All Connections

Fundamentally important with respect to the Connective Physics of The Fifth Element is the potential for a human consciousness to act as a “channel” for the universal energy flow.  On a more esoteric level, loving another human being may be simply the act of channeling the love of the universe through the lover and in the direction of the beloved.  The delightful part is that the love traversing the lover is also leaving the effects of its passage within the lover.  By the same token, hate would accomplish the same effect, but with less desirable results.  The relevant question is whether or not, all such channelings or passages of universal energy flow through the body, leave their effects as well.

Bruce Lee has been described <> as accomplishing astounding feats with the power of using his body to motivate others in an appropriate (Lee-selected) direction.  But there is also the very real possibility of his consciousness being a key element in the process — potentially even of far greater importance than his skill at practicing his own brand of martial arts!  The same can be said of karate or homeopathy. In effect, Bruce Lee may have been “channeling” energy, and moving it in a very specific direction, for a very specific purpose.

However, if Bruce Lee and other practitioners of the martial arts are simply channeling vast amounts of love, hate, power, and/or energy through their bodies, and in the process reaping a fair amount of residue/effect of the universal energy (in any of its myriad forms, both esoteric and exoteric, good and bad), an essential requirement for the practitioner’s mind and body would be a conscious state conductive to the process and at the same time, one capable of utilizing the energies to advantage.

In something we might term the Bruce Lee Effect, there is the distinct possibility that too much energy flow for a given consciousness state or mental capacity might result in a situation where the body of the energy’s channeler suffers significantly.  Trying to channel even a healing energy through a body for the benefit of another might in some cases result in overpowering the capacity of the body of the healer to compensate.  Funneling love in large quantities is unlikely to cause any negative effects, inasmuch as the very nature of love would be, at the very least, to soften any possible negative effects, and in the more likely scenario, simply leave the lover awash in love (possibly a very desirable condition).

But other forms of energy, even when positive in their intent, could be overdoing an individual’s ability to “carry the current”, so to speak.  Just as too much current can overload a circuit (and burn it out), too much directed energy can burn out the circuits of the channeler through which the energy is flowing.  This may be the problem, for example, of anyone approaching the Ark of the Covenant who is not in resonance with it, who has not taken the ORME and prepared themselves (consciously and physically).  [See below.]

In the case of an energy flow with negative characteristics, the probability of negative results in the perpetrator’s mind and body quickly approaches unity (i.e. it’s guaranteed).  For example, hating someone intently — flowing universal hate energy through the body — is without question, deleterious to the hater (and maybe the hated).  A traditional tale tells of a person hating someone sufficiently intently that the initiator of the hate is likened to holding a hot coal in his or her hand, while waiting for the opportunity to throw it at the target of the person’s hate.  The moral of this situation is that the hater will end up with a very burned and damaged hand, while the hated may likely escape because of the bad aim of the already wounded hater, who when he or she finally lets the hot coal go in the approximate direction of the intended victim, misses.  Too bad.  [pardon the pun]

For those intrigued by the idea of channeling energy in any of its many forms, be advised that channeling negative energies is decidedly not a good idea.  This implies, of course, a prerequisite of a soul being able to discriminate between positive, negative, and negative-attempting-to-appear-positive energies.  However once the appropriately selected energy is determined, one can then begin a process of directing energies to others.

In this regard, there is unlikely to be any deleterious effects if one simply channels unconditional love and joy, without the slightest hint of attempting to infringe on another’s free will.  For those cases where a more active and focused intent is appropriate (perhaps in some cases of healing, for example), the channeler’s mind and body must be adequately prepared beforehand.  This might include meditation, prayer, or other mental preparations.

Physical preparations for channeling might include being fully hydrated.  Water in the body in maximum quantities appears essential in order to absorb without any ill effects, the fluctuating energies in both channeling and DNA changes. Dehydration, on the other hand, would likely cause major problems, because of the body’s inability to deal with the vibrational frequencies of any and all universal energies coursing through the body.  Water is an excellent buffer, when it comes to being sufficiently fluid for vibrational changes, and it needs to be present in the body in adequate quantities in order to do the work.

There is also the very noteworthy effects of attempting to channel ORME-related energy.  Traditionally, those without the proper attitude of “righteousness” have found themselves in deep do-do.  The best examples derive from the Bible, where in one case an innocent guard, seeing the Ark of the Covenant (the container for the ORME) about to capsize, reached out to prevent it, and promptly died from the effort.  While his goal might have been laudatory, his mental state was more likely that of anxiety or fear.  What was needed instead was for him to be in a mental/emotional state of righteousness before attempting to deal with the ORME or the Ark.  [See above. <g>]

An even more definitive example occurred when there was a concerted effort on the part of Moses’s people to assume some measure of control over the affairs of the wandering Hebrews.  Moses and Aaron had up until that time, been the only individuals with access to the Ark of the Convenant, and ultimately to the ORME.  This exclusivity might be construed as a Moses-style control-issue, or more likely, the understanding by Moses of the inadvisability of allowing anyone — perhaps without the essential prerequisites — to have access to the ORME, and thus to be able to channel an enormous amount of energy, with its attendant negative or positive effects.

When the members of the uprising demanded an opportunity to access the Ark, and after some resistance by Moses and Aaron, the latter two led the penitents into the presence of the Ark and its ORME contents.  At an appropriate moment, the two leaders ducked, and the crowd behind them was blasted into oblivion by some power impulse originating from the Ark — potentially a high voltage, discharging electromagnetic pulse.  Apparently, the crowd was not quite enlightened enough — a charge which can perhaps always be levied on virtually any crowd.  In effect, the Hebrews received an instantaneous introduction of the Bruce Lee Effect, even if they had no clue as to this future individual.  (There were very few movies, including preruns, in the Sinai in those days.)

A significant question is whether or not the channeling of energies can be accomplished with no negative impacts.  Better yet, how can extraordinary energies be channeled (inasmuch as we’re likely already channeling energy on a continuing and regular basis)?

In a word, Superconductivity.  Current flowing through a circuit causes the circuit to heat — a phenomena known as i2R heating (the current squared times the resistance).  In superconductivity, the resistance goes to zero, and thus there is noheating.  If there is no heating, there is no “burn out”, and thus no negative effects of channeling any amount of energy.  With “superconducting channeling”, therefore, one might be able to focus the energy without being attached to it (i.e. no resistance to its passage), and thus the channel accumulating no negative effects of the energy which is flowing through the body.  Obviously, the key is No Resistance!  And as has been said: “No pain; no resistance.”

How does one convert their thoughts to a “superconducting channeling” focus?  Allegedly the answer involves the ORMEStar FireORMUS, or the white powder of gold.  By taking what is known as Manna, the “What is it” of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, one may be able to achieve the ultimate in spiritual experiences — to be able to channel in a superconducting mode.  The ORME is reputed to facilitate the ability of the consumer to transform his or her electrons into positrons (particles of light), and thus to shift into a superconducting state.  In such a state, the ORME consumer can channel and reap the appropriate rewards, hopefully without burning up the circuitry (also known as the “brain”).  (Meditation is also a possibility, but likely a longer path.)

Then there was the orchestra leader, who upon being electrocuted in the electric chair, did not die — supposedly because he was a lousy conductor.  On the other hand, if he had been a “superconductor”, the current passing through his body might have had no effect, and he would have been unharmed as well — even if he had been a competent professional!

Is there, perhaps, another way?  (Other than to learn how to conduct music.)  If the ORME is unavailable, or for any number of reasons we encounter the situation wherein the “white powder of gold” has become a tool of  Dem Wid de Gold; is there somewhere else we can turn?

In the physics of The Fifth Element, the third derivative (akin to Arthur Young’s third derivative) is a term nearly identical in form to the Resistance term, but with a negative sign!  In effect, the third derivative term might be thought of as a negative resistance!  (And if resistance implies pain, imagine what negative resistance implies!)  With a negative resistance in the circuit, energy or current can flow with even greater ease than in the superconducting case.  The negative resistance actually contributes to propelling the flow through the circuit.  Therefore, an ability to utilize the third derivative in one’s thinking might be an improvement over even the ORME’s ability to facilitate channeling without over heating.  But how does one do that?

The critical aspect of the third derivative term is that it involves in the mechanical system, both mass, a time delay term, and a change in the rate of acceleration.  In the case of an electrical circuit — our preferred analogy — it involves inductance, a similar time delay term, and the acceleration of current.  Abrupt changes or impulses in the current, for example, increases the magnitude (given a constant inductance and time delay).

This may be analogous to being able to mentally construct a thought (in the form of a sharp, mental impulse) and then immediately lets it go!  It’s much like parking prosperity where one visualizes a convenient parking space near their destination, immediately lets it go (i.e. doesn’t worry or think about it after the quick visualization), and then easily finds the parking place upon arrival.  All of this is the concept of an abrupt, sudden, radical change in one’s paradigm, and afterwards, just as in the case of faults, not dwelling on them!  (The foregoing pun, incidentally, was intentional, inasmuch as it was an example of a sudden change in thinking or perspective — which is the basis of most positive humor, and possibly the basis of tapping into the equivalent of a superconducting state of mind.)

What is the analogy of the inductance?  Inductance is “the property of an electric circuit that causes an electromotive force to be generated by a change in the current flowing.”  On the one hand, force can be viewed as the means by which manifestation is accomplished.  The current might then be construed as the channeling of energy, while a change in the current is about the rapid pulsings of the energy (i.e. the vibrations and/or frequencies being transmitted).  Inductance might, therefore, be akin to righteousness!

With less religious overtones, Inductance might be equated to Intention.  Neither good nor bad intention, but simply intention.  Intention, in turn, might be increased with focus or attention to specifics.  If the purpose of meditation is to eliminate distracting thoughts, then perhaps meditation is an exercise in increasing one’s mental Inductance.  (The idea in meditation of eliminating all thoughts and concentrating on nothingness is, perhaps, an unfortunate misunderstanding.  It’s good for exercise purposes, but ultimately, the ability to focus may have been developed in order to focus on specific, action-oriented thoughts.)

In the third derivative term, there is also a time delay factor.  This term can be described in a mechanical system, as the time for the impulse force to reach the center of mass of the impacted object and return to the point of impact.  I.e. the larger the object impacted, the larger the time delay (assuming the same rate of propagation of the information or impulse in the object).  In an electrical circuit it’s the dimension of the circuit, i.e. the length of a coil, for example.  In diminutive systems, the time delay factor might be viewed as quite small and even approaching zero (thus the third derivative term also tending toward zero).

However, if the extent of the “circuitry” is based upon the extent to which the system is tapping into the more distant reaches of the universe, then the time delay portion of the third derivative term becomes ever more significant.  This might correspond to the degree in which we embrace all of existence — or at the very least, something extending beyond the immediate concerns of the up close and personal concerns of the individual ego.  The latter might be something termed, Expassion (i.e. an external compassion for all things outside of the ego).  The more one is reaching out and feeling connected (as opposed to being a shell hermit), the more likely one has a very large circuit… or network!

It’s been said that the only viable Social Security is your friends — i.e. networks are good.  Alternatively, Social InSecurity has some really serious limitations.

Does the ORME assist in this endeavor?  Certainly from the viewpoint of eliminating distracting thoughts (i.e. staking a claim to the remnants or expecting commissions on the energy flow), the ORME might indeed be an equivalent means of increasing Inductance.  Inductance does, of course, sound very much like conductance, perhaps even a form of superconductance.  (And of course, “ductance” refers to the ability of duct tape to be used on anything that moves and shouldn’t — while grease is used for anything that doesn’t move and should.)  [I have no shame — which is a good thing.]

All things are indeed connected, including theories.  I.e. the third derivative of The Fifth Element could be related in a straight-forward manner to Superconductivity and the ORME (as well as Consciousness).  Consider the following:

Inductance increased to Super-Inductance (Intention) and multiplied by the Expassion, times the frequency of the channeled energy equals the third derivative contribution.  In the ORME case, the contribution consists of the Superconductance times Righteousness times frequency of the channeled energy.  Pretty much the same thing.

But ancient traditions have known this all along.  Right?

Right.  So, what are your Intentions now in Creating Reality?  Think about it!

What is Consciousness?

The Problem of Consciousness

Conventional explanations portray consciousness as an emergent property of classical computer-like activities in the brain’s neural networks. The prevailing views among scientists in this camp are that 1) patterns of neural network activities correlate with mental states, 2) synchronous network oscillations in thalamus and cerebral cortex temporally bind information, and 3) consciousness emerges as a novel property of computational complexity among neurons.

However, these approaches appear to fall short in fully explaining certain enigmatic features of consciousness, such as:

  • The nature of subjective experience, or ‘qualia’- our ‘inner life’ (Chalmers’ “hard problem”);
  • Binding of spatially distributed brain activities into unitary objects in vision, and a coherent sense of self, or ‘oneness’;
  • Transition from pre-conscious processes to consciousness itself;
  • Non-computability, or the notion that consciousness involves a factor which is neither random, nor algorithmic, and that consciousness cannot be simulated (Penrose, 1989, 1994, 1997);
  • Free will; and,
  • Subjective time flow.

Brain imaging technologies demonstrate anatomical location of activities which appear to correlate with consciousness, but which may not be directly responsible for consciousness.

Figure 1. PET scan image of brain showing visual and auditory recognition (from S Petersen, Neuroimaging Laboratory, Washington University, St. Louis. Also see J.A. Hobson “Consciousness,” Scientific American Library, 1999, p. 65).

Figure 2. Electrophysiological correlates of consciousness.

How do neural firings lead to thoughts and feelings? The conventional (a.k.a. functionalist, reductionist, materialist, physicalist, computationalist) approach argues that neurons and their chemical synapses are the fundamental units of information in the brain, and that conscious experience emerges when a critical level of complexity is reached in the brain’s neural networks.

The basic idea is that the mind is a computer functioning in the brain (brain = mind = computer). However in fitting the brain to a computational view, such explanations omit incompatible neurophysiological details:

  • Widespread apparent randomness at all levels of neural processes (is it really noise, or underlying levels of complexity?);
  • Glial cells (which account for some 80% of brain);
  • Dendritic-dendritic processing;
  • Electrotonic gap junctions;
  • Cytoplasmic/cytoskeletal activities; and,
  • Living state (the brain is alive!)

A further difficulty is the absence of testable hypotheses in emergence theory. No threshold or rationale is specified; rather, consciousness “just happens”.

Finally, the complexity of individual neurons and synapses is not accounted for in such arguments. Since many forms of motile single-celled organisms lacking neurons or synapses are able to swim, find food, learn, and multiply through the use of their internal cytoskeleton, can they be considered more advanced than neurons?

Figure 3. Single cell paramecium can swim and avoid obstacles using its cytoskeleton.

Are neurons merely simple switches?

2. Microtubules

Activities within cells ranging from single-celled organisms to the brain’s neurons are organized by a dynamic scaffolding called the cytoskeleton, whose major components are microtubules. Hollow, crystalline cylinders 25 nanometers in diameter, microtubules are comprised of hexagonal lattices of proteins, known as tubulin. Microtubules are essential to cell shape, function, movement, and division. In neurons microtubules self-assemble to extend axons and dendrites and form synaptic connections, then help to maintain and regulate synaptic activity responsible for learning and cognitive functions. Microtubules interact with membrane structures mechanically by linking proteins, chemically by ions and “second-messenger” signals, and electrically by voltage fields.

Figure 4. Schematic view of two neurons connected by chemical synapse. Axon terminal (above) releases neurotransmitter vesicles which bind receptors on post-synaptic dendritic spine. Within neurons are visible cytoskeletal structures microtubules (“MTs” – thicker tubes) as well as actin, synapsin and others which connect MTs to membranes. Also, MT-associated proteins (“MAPs”) interconnect MTs.

Figure 5. Immunoelectron micrograph of dendritic microtubules interconnected by MAPs. Some MTs have been sheared, revealing internal hollow core. The granular “corn-cob” surface of MTs is barely evident to close inspection. Scale bar, lower left: 100 nanometers. With permission from Hirokawa, 1991.

Figure 6. Crystallographic structure of microtubules.

While microtubules have traditionally been considered as purely structural elements, recent evidence has revealed that mechanical signaling and communication functions also exist:

  • MT “kinks” travel at 15 microns (2000 tubulin subunits) per second. Vernon and Woolley (1995) Experimental Cell Research 220(2)482-494
  • MTs vibrate (100-650 Hz) with nanometer displacement. Yagi, Kamimura, Kaniya (1994) Cell motility and the cytoskeleton 29:177-185
  • MTs optically “shimmer” when metabolically active. Hunt and Stebbings (1994), Cell motility and the cytoskeleton 17:69-78
  • Mechanical signals propogate through microtubules to cell nucleus; mechanism for MT regulation of gene expression. Maniotis, Chen and Ingber (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:849-854
  • Measured tubulin dipoles and MT conductivity suggest MTs are ferroelectric at physiological temperature (Tuszynski; Unger 1998)

Current models propose that tubulins within microtubules undergo coherent excitation, switching between two or more conformational states in nanoseconds. Dipole couplings among neighboring tubulins in the microtubule lattice form dynamical patterns, or “automata,” which evolve, interact and lead to the emergence of new patterns. Research indicates that microtubule automata computation could support classical information processing, transmission and learning within neurons.

Figure 7. Left: Microtubule (MT) structure: a hollow tube of 25 nanometers diameter, consisting of 13 columns of tubulin dimers arranged in a skewed hexagonal lattice (Penrose, 1994). Right (top): Each tubulin molecule may switch between two (or more) conformations, coupled to London forces in a hydrophobic pocket. Right (bottom): Each tubulin can also exist (it is proposed) in quantum superposition of both conformational states.

Figure 8. Microtubule automaton simulation (from Rasmussen et al., 1990). Eight nanosecond time steps of a segment of one microtubule are shown in “classical computing” mode in which conformational states of tubulins are determined by dipole-dipole coupling between each tubulin and its six (asymmetrical) lattice neighbors. Conformational states form patterns which move, evolve, interact and lead to emergence of new patterns.

Microtubule automata switching offers a potentially vast increase in the computational capacity of the brain. Conventional approaches focus on synaptic switching at the neural level which optimally yields about 1018 operations per second in human brains (~1011 neurons/brain with ~104 synapses/neuron, switching at ~103 sec-1). Microtubule automata switching can explain some 1027 operations per second (~1011 neurons with ~107 tubulins/neuron, switching at ~109sec-1). Indeed, the fact that all biological cells typically contain approximately 107 tubulins could account for the adaptive behaviors of single-celled organisms which have no nervous system or synapses. Rather than simple switches, neurons are complex computers.

3. Pan-experiential philosophy meets modern physics

Still, greater computational complexity and ultra-reductionism to the level of microtubule automata cannot address the enigmatic features of consciousness, in particular the nature of conscious experience. Something more is required. If functional approaches and emergence are incomplete, perhaps the raw components of mental processes (qualia) are fundamental properties of nature (like mass, spin or charge). This view has long been held by pan-psychists throughout the ages, for example Buddhists and Eastern philosophers claim a “universal mind.” Following the ancient Greeks, Spinoza argued in the 17th century that some form of consciousness existed in everything physical. The 19th century mathematician Leibniz proposed that the universe was composed of an infinite number of fundamental units, or “monads,” with each possessing a form of primitive psychological being. In the 20th century, Russell claimed that there was a common entity underlying both mental and physical processes, while Wheeler and Chalmers have maintained that there exists an experiential aspect to fundamental information.

Of particular interest is the work of the 20th century philosopher Alfred North Whitehead, whose pan-experiential view remains most consistent with modern physics. Whitehead argued that consciousness is a process of events occurring in a wide, basic field of proto-conscious experience. These events, or “occasions of experience,” may be comparable to quantum state reductions, or actual events in physical reality (Shimony, 1993). This suggests that consciousness may involve quantum state reductions (e.g. a form of quantum computation).

But what of Whitehead’s basic field of proto-conscious experience? In what medium are the “occasions of experience” (?quantum state reductions) occurring? Could proto-conscious qualia simply exist in the empty space of the universe?

What is empty space? Historically, empty space has been described as either an absolute void or a pattern of fundamental geometry. Democritus and the Michaelson-Morley results argued for “nothingness” while Aristotle (“plenum”) and Maxwell (“ether”) rejected the notion of emptiness in favor of “something” – a background pattern. Einstein weighed in on both sides of this debate, initially supporting the concept of a void with his theory of special relativity but then reversing himself in his theory of general relativity and its curved space and geometric distortions-the space-time metric. Could proto-conscious qualia be properties of the metric, fundamental space-time geometry?

What is fundamental space-time geometry? We know that at extremely small scales, space-time is not smooth, but quantized. Quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory predict virtual particle/waves (or photons) that pop into and out of existence, creating quantum “foam” in their wake. The presence of virtual photons in space-time has been verified (Lamoreaux, 1997).

Figure 9. Quantum electodynamics (QED) predicts a foam of erupting and collapsing virtual particles which may be visualized as topographic distortions of the fabric of spacetime. Adapted from Thorne (1994) by Dave Cantrell.

Figure 10. A: The Casimir force of the quantum vacuum zero point fluctuation energy may be measured by placing two macroscopic surfaces separated by a tiny gap d1. As some virtual photons are excluded in the gap, the net “quantum foam” pressure forces the surfaces together. In Lamoreaux’s (1997) experiment, d1 was in the range of 0.6 to 6.0 microns (~1500 nanometers). B: George Hall (1996; 1997) has calculated the Casimir force on microtubules. As the force is proportional to d-4, and d2 for microtubules is 15 nanometers, the predicted Casimir force is 106 greater on microtubules (per equivalent surface area) than that measured by Lamoreaux. Hall calculates a range of Casimir force on microtubules (length dependent) from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres.

At the basic level, this granularity has been modeled by Roger Penrose as a dynamic web of quantum spins. These “spin networks” create an array of geometric volumes and configurations at the Planck scale (10-33 cm, 10-43 secs) which dynamically evolve and define space-time geometry.

Figure 11. A spin network. Introduced by Roger Penrose (1971) as a quantum mechanical description of the geometry of space, spin networks describe spectra of discrete Planck scale volumes and configurations (with permission, Rovelli and Smolin, 1995).

If spin networks are the fundamental level of space-time geometry, they could provide the basis for proto-conscious experience. In other words, particular configurations of quantum spin geometry would convey particular types of qualia, meaning and aesthetic values. A process at the Planck scale (e.g. quantum state reductions) could access and select configurations of experience.

For illustration, 4 dimensional space-time geometry is often portrayed as a 2 dimensional “space-time sheet.”

Figure 12. According to Einstein’s general relativity, mass is equivalent to curvature in spacetime geometry. Penrose applies this equivalence to the fundamental Planck scale. The motion of an object between two conformational states of a protein such as tubulin (top) is equivalent to two curvatures in spacetime geometry as represented as a two-dimensional spacetime sheet (bottom).

4. Quantum computing and consciousness

If proto-conscious information is embedded at the near-infinitesimal Planck scale, how could it be linked to biology? To begin, Penrose extends Einstein’s theory of general relativity (in which mass equates to curvature in space-time) down to the Planck scale. As a result, specific arrangements of mass are, in reality, specific configurations of space-time geometry. Events at the very small scale, however, are subject to the seemingly bizarre goings-on of quantum theory.

A century of experimental observation of quantum systems have shown that, at least at small scales, particles (mass) can exist in two or more states or locations simultaneously (quantum superposition). Penrose takes superposition (e.g. a mass in two places simultaneously) to be simultaneous space-time curvature in opposite directions – a separation, or bubble (“blister”) in underlying reality.

Figure 13. Mass superposition, e.g. a protein occupying two different conformational states simultaneously (top) is equivalent, according to Penrose, to simultaneous spacetime curvature in opposite directions – a separation, or bubble (“blister”) in fundamental spacetime geometry.

Figure 14. Spacetime superposition/separation bubble (bottom) will reduce, or collapse to one or the other spacetime curvatures (top).

Superposition and subsequent reduction, or collapse, to single, classical states may have profoundly important applications in technology, as well as toward the understanding of consciousness. In the 1980s Benioff, Feynman, Deutsch and other physicists proposed that states in a quantum system could interact (via entanglement) and enact computation while in quantum superposition of all possible states (“quantum computing”). Classical computing processes bits (or conformational states) as 1 or 0, quantum computations involve the processing of superpositioned “qubits” of both 1 and 0 (and other states) simultaneously.

Figure 15. Qubits useful in quantum computation may exist in two or more (“both”) states simultaneously prior to collapse, or reduction (left), and then in single, classical (“either, or”) states after reduction (right). Spin, quantum dots and photon polarization qubits have been proposed and/or demonstrated in prototype quantum computers, and tubulin proteins and spacetime geometry are proposed in the Orch OR model to perform as qubits also.

Quantum theory also tells us that two or more particles, if once together, will remain somehow connected (“entangled”), even when separated by great distances. Qubits can interact by quantum entanglement, so that quantum computing is able to achieve a nearly infinite parallel computational ability. Quantum computers, if they can be constructed, will be able to solve imprtant problems (e.g. factoring large numbers) with efficiency unattainable in classical computers (Shor, 1994).

Researchers have developed a “Figure of Merit” M for proposed quantum computing technologies (Modified from Barenco, 1996 & DiVincenzo, 1995). M is related to the number of elementary operations performed per qubit before the superposition/computation is disrupted by decoherence (or in the case of microtubules in the Orch OR proposal, before objective reduction terminates the superposition).

Technology telem
M (operations/qubit
Mossbauer nucleus 10-19 10-10 109
Electrons GaAs 10-13 10-10 103
Electrons Au 10-14 10-8 106
Trapped ions 10-14 10-1 1013
Optical cavities 10-14 10-5 109
Electron spin 10-7 10-3 104
Electron quantum dots 10-6 10-3 103
Nuclear spin 10-3 104 107
Superconductor islands 10-9 103 106
Microtubule tubulins 10-9 10-1 108

Results, or solutions in quantum computing are obtained when, after a period of quantum superposition/computation, the qubits “collapse”, or reduce to classical bit states (“collapse of the wave function”). As quantum superposition may only occur in isolation from environment, collapse (reduction) may be induced by breaching isolation (this is what is envisioned in technological quantum computers – making a measurement). But what about quantum superpositions which remain isolated, for example Schrodinger’s mythical cat which is both dead and alive? This is the famous problem of collapse of the wave function, or quantum state reduction.

5. Roger Penrose’s ‘objective reduction’ OR

How or why do quantum superpositioned states which avoid environmental interactions become classical and definite in the macro-world? Many physicists now believe that some objective factor disturbs the superposition and causes it to collapse. Roger Penrose proposes that this factor is an intrinsic feature of space-time geometry itself – quantum gravity. According to Penrose’s interpretation of general relativity, quantum superposition (e.g. separation of mass from itself) is equivalent to separation in underlying space-time geometry-simultaneous space-time curvatures in opposite directions. Penrose argues that these separations in fundamental reality, (“bubbles, or blisters”) are unstable-even when isolated from the environment-and will reduce spontaneously (and non-computably) to specific states at a critical threshold of space-time separation (thereby avoiding the need for “multiple worlds”). This objective threshold is defined by the indeterminacy principle:

E = h/T

where E is the gravitational self-energy of the superposed mass separated from itself, h is Planck’s constant divided by 2pi, and T is the coherence time until collapse occurs. Thus, the size and energy of a system in superposition, or the degree of space-time separation, is inversely related to the time T until reduction. (E can be calculated from the superposed mass mand the separation distance a. See e.g. Hameroff and Penrose, 1996a.)

Assuming isolation, the following masses in superposition would collapse at the designated times, according to Penrose’s objective reduction:

Mass (m) Time (T)
Nucleon 107 years
Beryllium ion 106 years
Water Speck
10-5 cm radius Hours
10-4 cm radius 1/20 second
10-3 cm radius 10-3 seconds
Schrodinger’s cat (m=1kg, a=10 cm) 10-37 seconds

If quantum computation with objective reduction were occurring in the brain, enigmatic features of consciousness (see Section above – The Problem of Consciousness) could be explained:

  • By occurring as a self-organizing process in what is suggested to be a pan-experiential medium of fundamental spacetime geometry, objective reductions could account for the nature of subjective experience by accessing and selecting proto-conscious qualia.
  • By virtue of involvement of unitary (entangled) quantum states during pre-conscious quantum computation and the unity of quantum information selected in each objective reduction, the issue of binding may be resolved.
  • Regarding the transitions from pre-conscious processes to consciousness itself, the pre-conscious processes may equate to the quantum superposition/quantum computation phase, and consciousness itself to the actual (instantaneous) objective reduction events. Consciousness may then be seen as a sequence of discrete events (e.g. at 40 Hz).
  • As Penrose objective reductions are proposed to be non-computable (reflecting influences from space-time geometry which are neither random, nor algorithmic) conscious choices and understanding may be similarly non-computable.
  • Free will may be seen as a combination of deterministic pre-conscious processes acted on by a non-computable influence.
  • Subjective time flow derives from a sequence of irreversible quantum state reductions.

Could objective reduction be occurring in the brain? If so (from E = h/T) time T would be expected to coincide with known neurophysiological processes with time scales from tens to hundreds of milliseconds (e.g. 25 msec for coherent 40 Hz, 100 msec for alpha EEG, 500 msec for sensory threshold events such as Libet’s famous 1979 experiments). In what types of brain structures might quantum computation with objective reduction occur? For T in this range we can calculate (from E = h/T, and with E related to mass m as described in Hameroff and Penrose, 1996a) that superpositioned mass m in the nanogram range would be required for conscious events of 40 to 500 msec. What brain components in nanogram quantitites could support quantum computation and objective reduction? What is m?

6. Are proteins qubits?

Biological life is organized by proteins. By changing their conformational shape, proteins are able to perform a wide variety of functions, including muscle movement, molecular binding, enzyme catalysis, metabolism, and movement. Dynamical protein structure results from a “delicate balance among powerful countervailing forces” (Voet & Voet, 1995). The types of forces acting on proteins include charged interactions (such as covalent, ionic, electrostatic, and hydrogen bonds), hydrophobic interactions, and dipole interactions. The latter group, also known as van der Waals forces, encompasses three types of interactions:

  • permanent dipole – permanent dipole,
  • permanent dipole – induced dipole, and
  • induced dipole – induced dipole (London dispersion forces)

As charged interactions cancel out, hydrophobic and dipole – dipole forces are left to regulate protein structure. While induced dipole – induced dipole interactions, or London dispersion forces, are the weakest of the forces outlined above, they are also the most numerous and influential. Indeed, they may be critical to protein function. For example, anesthetics are able to bind in hydrophobic “pockets” of certain neural proteins and ablate consciousness by virtue of disrupting these London forces. London force attraction between any two atoms is usually less than a few kilojoules; however, since thousands occur in each protein, they add up to thousands of kilojoules per mole, and cause changes in conformational structure. As London forces are instrumental in protein folding (a problem intractable to conventional computational simulation), protein conformation and folding may be quantum computations.

Figure 16. A type of van der Waals force, the London dispersion force, is quantum mechanical and governs both protein conformation.

Figure 17. A. An anesthetic gas molecule (A) in a hydrophobic pocket of critical brain protein (receptors, channels, tubulin etc.) prevents normally occurring London forces, preventing protein conformational dynamics and superposition necessary for consciousness. B. A psychedelic hallucinogen (P) acts in hydrophobic pocket in critical brain protein to promote and sustain superposition, ‘expanding’ consciousness (see Figure 25).

Figure 18. A. Protein qubit. A protein such as tubulin can exist in two conformations determined by quantum London forces in hydrophobic pocket (top), or superposition of both conformations (bottom). B. The protein qubit corresponds to two alternative spacetime curvatures (top), and superposition/separation (bubble) of both curvatures (bottom).

If proteins are qubits, arrays or assemblies of proteins in some type of organelle or biomolecular structure could be a quantum computer. Ideal structures would be:

  • Abundant;
  • Capable of information processing and computation;
  • Functionally important (e.g., regulating synapses);
  • Self-organizing;
  • Tunable by input information (e.g., microtubule-associated protein orchestration);
  • Periodic and crystal-like in structure (e.g., dipole lattice);
  • Isolated (transiently) from environmental decoherence;
  • Conformationally coupled to quantum events (e.g., London forces);
  • Cylindrical wave-guide structure; and,
  • Plasma-like charge layer coating.

While various structures/organelles have been suggested (e.g., membrane proteins, clathrins, myelin, pre-synaptic grids, and calcium ions), the most logical candidates are microtubule automata.

Figure 19. The Penrose-Hameroff Orch OR model was hatched on a hike in the Grand Canyon following the Tucson I conference in April, 1994. From left: David Chalmers, Rhett Savage, Marie-Francoise Insinna, Seamus O’Morain, Stuart Hameroff, Roger Penrose, Vanessa Penrose, Jeff Tollaksen. Photo by Ezio Insinna.

7. Microtubule quantum automata – The ‘Orch OR’ model

The Penrose – Hameroff model of “orchestrated objective reduction” (Orch OR) proposes that:

  • Quantum superposition/computation occur in microtubule automata within brain neurons and glia.;
  • Tubulin subunits within microtubules act as qubits, switching between states on a nanosecond (10-9 sec) scale governed by quantum London forces in hydrophobic pockets;
  • Tubulin qubits interact computationally by nonlocal quantum entanglement according to the Schrodinger equation;

Figure 20. The basic idea in the Orch OR model is that each tubulin in a microtubule is a qubit.

Figure 21. Microtubule automaton sequence simulation in which classical computing (step 1) leads to emergence of quantum coherent superposition (steps 2-6) in certain (gray) tubulins due to pattern resonance. Step 6 (in coherence with other microtubule tubulins) meets critical threshold related to quantum gravity for self-collapse (Orch OR). Consciousness (Orch OR) occurs in the step 6 to 7 transition. Step 7 represents the eigenstate of mass distribution of the collapse which evolves by classical computing automata to regulate neural function. Quantum coherence begins to re-emerge in step 8.

  • pre-conscious processing which continues until the threshold for objective reduction (OR) is reached by E = h/T;
  • At that instant collapse, or OR occurs which is an actual event in fundamental space-time geometry. This event selects a particular configuration of Planck-scale experiential geometry, enacting a “moment of awareness,” “occasion of experience” or conscious event.

Figure 22. Schematic graph of proposed pre-conscious quantum superposition (number of tubulins) emerging versus time in microtubules. Area under curve connects superposed mass energy E with collapse time T in accordance with E=(h/T. E may be expressed as nt, the number of tubulins whose mass separation (and separation of underlying space time) for time T will self-collapse. For T = 25 msec (e.g. 40 Hz oscillations), nt = 2 x 1010 tubulins.

Figure 23. Schematic of quantum computation of three tubulins which begin (left) in initial classical states, then enter isolated quantum superposition in which all possible states coexist. After reduction, one particular classical outcome state is chosen (right).

Figure 24. Schematic quantum computation in spacetime curvature for three mass distributions (e.g. tubulin conformations in Figure 23) which begin (left) in initial classical states, then enter isolated quantum superposition in which all possible states coexist. After reduction, one particular classical outcome state is chosen (right).

  • A sequence of OR events (e.g. at 40 Hz) provides a forward flow of subjective time and “stream” of consciousness;

Figure 25. Quantum superposition/entanglement in microtubules for 5 states related to consciousness. Area under each curve equivalent in all cases. A. Normal 30 Hz experience: as in Figure 22. B. Anesthesia: anesthetics bind in hydrophobic pockets and prevent quantum delocalizability and coherent superposition. C. Heightened Experience: increased sensory experience input (for example) increases rate of emergence of quantum superposition. Orch OR threshold is reached faster, and Orch OR frequency increases. D. Altered State: even greater rate of emergence of quantum superposition due to sensory input and other factors promoting quantum state (e.g. meditation, psychedelic drug etc.). Predisposition to quantum state results in baseline shift and collapse so that conscious experience merges with normally sub-conscious quantum computing mode. E. Dreaming: prolonged sub-threshold quantum superposition time.

  • At the nanoscale each event determines new classical states of microtubule automata which regulate synaptic and other neural functions;
  • During the pre-conscious quantum superposition/computation phase, oscillations are “tuned” and “orchestrated” by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), providing a feedback loop between the biological system and the quantum state (hence Orch OR);
  • Quantum states in microtubules may link to those in microtubules in other neurons and glia by tunneling through gap junctions, permitting extension of the quantum state throughout significant volumes of the brain.

Figure 26. Schematic of proposed quantum superposition and entanglement in microtubules in three dendrites interconnected by tunneling through gap junctions. Within each neuronal dendrite, microtubule-associated-protein (MAP) attachments breach isolation and prevent quantum coherence; MAP attachment sites thus act as “nodes” which tune and orchestrate quantum oscillations and set possibilities and probabilities for collapse outcomes (orchestrated objective reduction: Orch OR). Gap junctions may enable quantum tunneling among dendrites resulting in macroscopic quantum states.

From E = h/T we can calculate the size and extension of Orch OR events which correlate with subjective or neurophysiological descriptions of conscious events.

Event T E
Buddhist “moment of awareness” 13 ms 4 x 1015 nucleons
(4 x 1010 tubulins/cell ~ 40,000 neurons)
“Coherent 40 Hz” oscillations” 25 ms 2 x 1015 nucleons
(2 x 1010 tubulins/cell ~ 20,000 neurons)
EEG alpha rhythm (8 to 12 Hz) 100 ms 5 x 1014 nucleons
(5 x 109 tubulins/cell ~ 5000 neurons)
Libet’s sensory threshold (1979) 500ms 1014 nucleons
(109 tubulins/cell ~ 1000 neurons)

But how could delicate quantum superposition/computation be isolated from environmental decoherence in the brain (generally considered to be a noisy thermal bath) while also communicating (input/output) with the environment? One possibility is that quantum superposition/computation occurs in an isolation phase which alternates with a communicative phase, for example at 40 Hz. One of the most primitive biological functions is the transition of cytoplasm between a liquid, solution (“sol”) phase, and a solid, gelatinous (“gel”) phase due to assembly and disassembly of the cytoskeletal protein actin. Actin sol-gel transitions can occur at 40 Hz or faster, and are known to be involved in neuronal synaptic release mechanisms.

Mechanisms for enabling microtubule quantum computation and avoiding decoherence long enough to reach threshold may include:

  • Sol-gel transitions;

Figure 27. Immunoelectron micrograph of cytoplasm showing microtubules (arrows), intermediate filaments (arrowheads) and actin microfilaments (mf). Dense gel of actin (lower left) completely obscures (?isolates) microtubules. Actin sol-gel transitions can occur at 40 Hz or faster. Scale bar (upper right): 500 nanometers. With permission from Svitkina et al, 1995.

  • Plasma phase sleeves (Sackett);

Figure 28. Dan Sackett at NIH recently described a plasma-like sleeve of charged ions surrounding microtubules at precisely optimal pH.

  • Quantum excitations/ordering of surrounding water (Jibu/Yasue/Hagan);
  • Hydrophobic pockets;
  • Hollow microtubule cores;
  • Laser-like pumping, including environment (Frohlich, Conrad).
  • Quantum error correcting codes

Another apparent obstacle to the Orch OR proposal is how the weak energy involved in the gravitational collapse can be influential. For a detailed description of this problem and potential solutions, see Hameroff, 1998c. One possibility is that the gravitational self-energy is delivered to the involved tubulins via London forces virtually instantaneously (e.g. within one Planck time) so that the power (energy/time) is significant – approximately one kilowatt per tubulin per Orch OR event.

8. Orch OR, cognition and free will

Quantum computation with objective reduction (Orch OR) is potentially applicable to cognitive activities. While classical neural-level computation can provide a partial explanation, the Orch OR model allows far greater information capacity, and addresses issues of conscious experience, binding, and non-computability consistent with free will. Functions like face recognition and volitional choice may require a series of conscious events arriving at intermediate solutions. For the purpose of illustration consider single Orch OR events in these two types of cognitive activities.

Imagine you briefly see a familiar woman’s face. Is she Amy, Betty, or Carol? Possibilities may superpose in a quantum computation. For example during 25 milliseconds of pre-conscious processing, quantum computation occurs with information (Amy, Betty, Carol) in the form of “qubits”3/4superposed states of microtubule tubulin subunits within groups of neurons. As threshold for objective reduction is reached, an instantaneous conscious event occurs. The superposed tubulin qubits reduce to definite states, becoming bits. Now, you recognize that she is Carol! (an immense number of possibilities could be superposed in a human brain’s 1019 tubulins).

Figure 29. Face recognition. A familiar face induces superposition (left) of three possible solutions (Amy, Betty, Carol) which “collapse” to the correct answer Carol (right). Volitional choice. Three possible dinner selections (shrimp, sushi, pasta) are considered in superposition (left), and collapse via Orch OR to choice of sushi (right).

In a volitional act possible choices may be superposed. Suppose for example you are selecting dinner from a menu. During pre-conscious processing, shrimp, sushi and pasta are superposed in a quantum computation. As threshold for objective reduction is reached, the quantum state reduces to a single classical state. A choice is made. You’ll have sushi!

How does the choice actually occur? In a conventional neural network scheme, the selection criteria can be described by a deterministic algorithm which precludes the possibility of free will. The non-computable influence in Orch OR may be useful in understanding free will.

The problem in understanding free will is that our actions seem neither totally deterministic nor random (probabilistic). What else is there in nature? As previously described, in OR (and Orch OR) the reduction outcomes are neither deterministic nor probabilistic, but involve a factor which is “non-computable.” The microtubule quantum superposition evolves linearly (analogous to a quantum computer) but is influenced at the instant of collapse by hidden non-local variables (quantum-mathematical logic inherent in fundamental spacetime geometry). The possible outcomes are limited, or probabilities set (“orchestrated”), by neurobiological feedback (in particular microtubule associated proteins, or MAPs). The precise outcome3/4our free will actions3/4are chosen by effects of the hidden logic on the quantum system poised at the edge of objective reduction.

Figure 30. Free will may be seen as the result of deterministic processes (behavior of trained robot windsurfer) acted on repeatedly by non-computable influences, here represented as a seemingly capricious wind.

Consider a sailboard analogy for free will. A sailor sets the sail in a certain way; the direction the board sails is determined by the action of the wind on the sail. Let’s pretend the sailor is a non-conscious robot zombie run by a quantum computer which is trained and programmed to sail. Setting and adjusting of the sail, sensing the wind and position, jibing and tacking (turning the board) are algorithmic and deterministic, and may be analogous to the pre-conscious, quantum computing phase of Orch OR. The direction and intensity of the wind (seemingly capricious, or unpredictable) may be considered analogous to Planck scale hidden non-local variables (e.g. “Platonic” quantum-mathematical logic inherent in space-time geometry). The choice, or outcome (the direction the boat sails, the point on shore it lands) depends on the deterministic sail settings acted on repeatedly by the apparently unpredictable wind. Our “free will” actions could be the net result of deterministic processes acted on by hidden quantum logic at each Orch OR event. This can explain why we generally do things in an orderly, deterministic fashion, but occasionally our actions or thoughts are surprising, even to ourselves.

9. Consciousness and evolution

When in the course of evolution did consciousness first appear? Are all living organisms conscious, or did consciousness emerge more recently, e.g. with language or toolmaking? Or did consciousness appear somewhere in between, and if so, when and why? The Orch OR model (unlike other models of consciousness) is able to make a prediction as to the onset of consciousness. Based on E = h/T we can ask, for example, is it feasible for single cell organisms such as paramecium (which exhibit complex behavior such as graceful swimming, mating and learning) to be conscious? Single cells including paramecium should contain approximately 107 tubulins, so T would be 50,000 msec, or nearly one minute. This seems unlikely. Larger organisms such as the nematode worm (e.g., C. elegans) with 300 neurons (3 x 109 tubulins) would need to maintain quantum isolation for only 133 msec – not unreasonable. Such organisms (tiny worms and urchins) were prevalent at the beginning of the “Cambrian explosion,” a burst of evolution which occurred 540 million years ago. Did primitive consciousness (via Orch OR) accelerate evolution and precipitate the Cambrian explosion?

Figure 31. A time-line of when consciousness could have arisen.

The Cambrian explosion was a burst of evolution 540 million years ago. Organisms present at the Cambrian onset included small worms and urchins. Did consciousness (Orch OR) cause the Cambrian explosion?

Figure 32. Organisms present at the early Cambrian explosion (e.g. tiny urchins, worms and suctorians) are the right size for primitive consciousness by Orch OR.

Figure 33. Actinosphaerium is a tiny urchin like those present at the early Cambrian explosion. Each has about one hundred rigid axonemes about 300 microns long, made up of a total of about 3 x 109 tubulins (with permission from L.E. Roth).

Figure 34. Cross-section of single axoneme of actinosphaerium – a double spiral array of interconnected microtubules. Scale bar: 500 nm (with permission from L.E. Roth).

Would consciousness be advantageous to survival (above and beyond intelligent, complex behavior)? It seems that, yes, consciousness would indeed be advantageous to survival, and hence capable of accelerating evolution. Non-computable behavior (unpredictability, intuitive actions) would be beneficial in predator-prey relations. Having conscious experience of taste would promote finding food; the experience of pain would promote avoiding predators. And the pleasurable qualia of sex would promote reproduction.

So “what is it like to be a worm?” Lacking our sensory apparatus, associative memory and complex nervous system such primitive consciousness would be a mere glimmer, a disjointed smudge of reality. But qualitatively, at a basic level, such primitive consciousness would be akin to ours.

What about future evolution? Will consciousness occur in computers? The advent of quantum computers opens the possibility, however as presently envisioned quantum computers will have insufficient mass in superposition (e.g. electrons) to reach threshold for objective reduction. Instead, superpositions will be disrupted by environmental decoherence. Conceivably, future generations of quantum computers could satisfy requirements for objective reduction and consciousness.

10. Conclusions
  • Brain processes relevant to consciousness extend downward within neurons to the level of cytoskeletal microtubules.
  • An explanation for conscious experience requires (in addition to neuroscience and psychology) a modern form of pan-protopsychism in which proto-conscious qualia are embedded in the basic level of reality, as described by modern physics.
  • Roger Penrose’s physics of objective reduction (OR) connects brain structures to fundamental reality, leading to the Penrose-Hameroff model of quantum computation with objective reduction in microtubules (orchestrated objective reduction: Orch OR).
  • The Orch OR model is consistent with known neurophysiological processes, generates testable predictions, and is the type of fundamental, multi-level, interdisciplinary theory which may account for the mind’s enigmatic features.
11. Acknowledgments & References

Some of the newer ideas expresssed here may not necessarily reflect Roger’s view. Thanks to Dave Cantrell for illustrations, and Carol Ebbecke for expert technical assistance. For a list of testable predictions of the Orch OR model, see Hameroff, 1998c or e.


Penrose, R. (1989) The Emperor’s New Mind, Oxford Press, Oxford, U.K

Penrose, R. (1994) Shadows of the Mind, Oxford Press, Oxford, U.K.

Penrose, R., Hameroff, S.R. (1995) What gaps? Reply to Grush and Churchland. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2(2):99-112.

Hameroff, S.R., and Penrose, R., (1996a) Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: A model for consciousness. In: Toward a Science of Consciousness – The First Tucson Discussions and Debates, S.R. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak and A.C. Scott (eds.), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.pp. 507-540. Also published in Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 40:453-480.

Hameroff, S.R., and Penrose, R. (1996b) Conscious events as orchestrated spacetime selections. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3(1):36-53.

Penrose, R. (1996) On gravity’s role in quantum state reduction. General relativity and gravitation. 28(5): 581-600

Penrose, R. (1997) On understanding understanding. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 11(1):7-20.

Penrose R. (1998) The large, the small, and the human mind

Hameroff, S. (1998a) Did consciousness cause the Cambrian evolutionary explosion? In: Toward a Science of Consciousness II – The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates. Eds S Hameroff, A Kaszniak, A Scott. MIT Press, Cambridge MA pp 421-437

Hameroff, S. (1998b) “More neural than thou”: Reply to Churchland’s “Brainshy” in: Toward a Science of Consciousness II – The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates. Eds S Hameroff, A Kaszniak, A Scott. MIT Press, Cambridge MA pp 197-213

Hameroff, S. (1998c) Funda-mental geometry: The Penrose-Hameroff Orch OR model of consciousness. In: The geometric universe – Science, geometry and the work of Roger Penrose. Eds. S.A. Huggett, L.J. Mason, K.P. Tod, S.T. Tsou, and N.M.J. Woodhouse. Oxford Press, Oxford, U.K. pp 135-160

Hameroff, S. (1998d) “Funda-Mentality” – Is the conscious mind subtly connected to a basic level of the universe? Trends in Cognitive Science 2(4):119-127

Hameroff, S. (1998e) Quantum computation in microtubules? The Penrose-Hameroff ‘Orch OR’ model of consciousness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A (London)356:1869-1896

Hameroff, S. (1998f) Anesthesia, consciousness and hydrophobic pockets – A unitary quantum hypothesis of anesthetic action. Toxicology Letters 100/101-31-39.

This informational bundle on the subject of consciousness will be constantly updated. If you have anything you think should be added to this list please contact us today.


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Petition for the Release of all Scientific Papers by Nikola Telsa

September 14, 2012 6 comments

Petition for the release of any and all scientific papers written by and/or relating to the research of Nikola Telsa to the American Public.

We got a fraction of what we needed last time. So this time around we are asking that you tell everyone you know to please sign this petition and get these papers released. When Tesla died in New York, it was shortly thereafter that men from the American Government came into his hotel room and seized ALL of his scientific papers. Since then there has been a silent technological revolution that happened behind the scenes within highly classified secret government projects and ALL of it has been kept from the American public. It is time that we the people demanded these papers be given to us so that we may also share in the technological revolution that has been kept from us. It is now or never. Let’s all do what we must. Tell a friend, tell a family member…get everyone you know to tell everyone they know to sign this document and pass it on. It takes two seconds and can change the world. Help us help Earth!!!


To sign this petition please scroll down to the bottom




Above: Tesla holding a gas-filled phosphor coated wireless light bulb which he developed in the 1890’s half a century before fluorescent lamps come into use.


Nikola Tesla symbolizes a unifying force and inspiration for all nations in the name of peace and science. He was a true visionary far ahead of his contemporaries in the field of scientific development.  New York State and many other states in the USA proclaimed July 10, Tesla’s birthday- Nikola Tesla Day.

Many United States Congressmen gave speeches in the House of Representatives on July 10, 1990 celebrating the 134th anniversary of scientist-inventor Nikola Tesla. Senator Levine from Michigan spoke in the US Senate on the same occasion.

            The street sign “Nikola Tesla Corner” was recently placed on the corner of the 40th Street and 6th Avenue in Manhattan. There is a large photo of Tesla in the Statue of Liberty Museum. The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City, New Jersey has a daily science demonstration of the Tesla Coil creating a million volts of electricity before the spectators eyes. Many books were written about Tesla : Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla by John J. O’Neill  and Margaret Cheney’s book Tesla: Man out of Time has contributed significantly to his fame. A documentary film Nikola Tesla, The Genius Who Lit the World, produced by the Tesla Memorial Society and the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade, The Secret of Nikola Tesla (Orson Welles), BBC Film Masters of the Ionosphere are other tributes to the great genius.

            Nikola Tesla was born on July 10, 1856 in Smiljan, Lika, which was then part of  the Austo-Hungarian Empire, region of Croatia. His father, Milutin Tesla was a Serbian Orthodox Priest and his mother Djuka Mandic was an inventor in her own right of household appliances. Tesla studied at the Realschule, Karlstadt in 1873, the Polytechnic Institute in Graz, Austria and the University of Prague. At first, he intended to specialize in physics and mathematics, but soon he became fascinated with electricity. He began his career as an electrical engineer with a telephone company in Budapest in 1881. It was there, as Tesla was walking with a friend through the city park that the elusive solution to the rotating magnetic field flashed through his mind. With a stick, he drew a diagram in the sand explaining to his friend the principle of the induction motor. Before going to America, Tesla joined Continental Edison Company in Paris where he designed dynamos. While in Strassbourg in 1883, he privately built a prototype of the induction motor and ran it successfully. Unable to interest anyone in Europe in promoting this radical device, Tesla accepted an offer to work for Thomas Edison in New York. His childhood dream was to come to America to harness the power of Niagara Falls.

            Young Nikola Tesla came to the United States in 1884 with an introduction letter from Charles Batchelor to Thomas Edison: “I know two great men,” wrote Batchelor, “one is you and the other is this young man.” Tesla spent the next 59 years of his productive life living in New York. Tesla set about improving Edison’s line of dynamos while working in Edison’s lab in New Jersey.  It was here that his divergence of opinion with Edison over direct current versus alternating current began. This disagreement climaxed in the war of the currents as Edison fought a losing battle to protect his investment in direct current equipment and facilities.

            Tesla pointed out the inefficiency of Edison’s direct current electrical powerhouses  that have been build up and down the Atlantic seaboard. The secret, he felt, lay in the use of alternating current ,because to him all energies were cyclic. Why not build generators that would send  electrical energy along distribution lines  first one way, than another, in multiple waves using the polyphase principle?

            Edison’s lamps were weak and inefficient  when supplied by direct current. This system had a severe disadvantage in that it could not be transported more than two miles due to its inability to step up to high voltage levels necessary for long distance transmission. Consequently, a direct current power station was required at two mile intervals.

            Direct current flows continuously in one direction; alternating current changes direction 50 or 60 times per second and can be stepped up to vary high voltage levels, minimizing power loss across great distances. The future belongs to alternating current.

            Nikola Tesla developed polyphase alternating current system of generators, motors and transformers and held 40 basic U.S. patents on the system, which George Westinghouse bought, determined to supply America with the Tesla system. Edison did not want to lose his DC empire, and a bitter war ensued. This was the war of the currents between AC and DC. Tesla -Westinghouse ultimately emerged the victor because AC was a superior technology. It was a war won for the progress of both America and the world.

Above: Tesla’s Polyphase Alternating Current 500 horse power generator, in Westinghouse Exposition.

            Tesla introduced his motors and electrical systems in a classic paper, “A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers” which he delivered before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1888. One of the most impressed was the industrialist and inventor George Westinghouse. One day he visited Tesla’s laboratory and was amazed at what he saw. Tesla had constructed a model polyphase system consisting of an alternating current dynamo, step-up and step-down transformers and A.C. motor at the other end. The perfect partnership between Tesla and Westinghouse for the nationwide use of electricity in America had begun.

In February 1882, Tesla discovered the rotating magnetic field, a fundamental principle in physics and the basis of nearly all devices that use alternating current.  Tesla brilliantly adapted the principle of rotating magnetic field for the construction of alternating current induction motor and the polyphase system for the generation, transmission, distribution and use of electrical power.

            Tesla’s A.C. induction motor is widely used throughout the world in industry

and household appliances. It started the industrial revolution at the turn of the

century. Electricity today is generated transmitted and converted to mechanical

power by means of his inventions. Tesla’s greatest achievement is his polyphase

alternating current system, which is today lighting the entire globe.

            Tesla astonished the world by demonstrating. the wonders of alternating current electricity at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Alternating current became standard power in the 20th Century.  This accomplishment changed the world. He designed the first hydroelectric powerplant in Niagara Falls in 1895, which was the final victory of alternating current.  The achievement was covered widely in the world press, and Tesla was praised as a hero world wide.  King Nikola of Montenegro conferred upon him the Order of Danilo.

Tesla was a pioneer in many fields.  The Tesla coil, which he invented in 1891, is widely used today in radio and television sets and other electronic equipment.  That year also marked the date of Tesla’s United States citizenship.  His alternating current induction motor is considered one of the ten greatest discoveries of all time.  Among his discoveries are the fluorescent light , laser beam, wireless communications, wireless transmission of electrical energy, remote control, robotics, Tesla’s turbines and vertical take off aircraft. Tesla is the father of the radio and the modern electrical transmissions systems. He registered over 700 patents worldwide. His vision included exploration of solar energy and the power of the sea. He foresaw interplanetary communications and satellites.

            The Century Magazine published Tesla’s principles of telegraphy without wires, popularizing scientific lectures given before Franklin Institute in February 1893. 

Method of Using Radiant Energy

energy from sun

The Electrical Review in 1896 published X-rays of a man, made by Tesla, with X-ray tubes of his own design.  They appeared at the same time as when Roentgen announced his discovery of X-rays. Tesla never attempted to proclaim priority.  Roentgen congratulated Tesla on his sophisticated X-ray pictures, and  Tesla even wrote Roentgen’s name on one of his films.  He experimented with shadowgraphs similar to those that later were to be used by Wilhelm Rontgen when he discovered X-rays in 1895.  Tesla’s countless experiments included work on a carbon button lamp, on the power of electrical resonance, and on various types of lightning.  Tesla invented the special vacuum tube which emitted light to be used in photography.

The breadth of his inventions is demonstrated by his patents for a bladeless steam turbine based on a spiral flow principle.  Tesla also patented a pump design to operate at extremely high temperature. 

Nikola Tesla patented the basic system of radio in 1896.  His published schematic diagrams describing all the basic elements of the radio transmitter which was later used by Marconi.

In 1896 Tesla constructed an instrument to receive radio waves.  He experimented with this device and transmitted radio waves from his laboratory on South 5th Avenue. to the Gerlach Hotel at 27th Street in Manhattan.  The device had a magnet which gave off intense magnetic fields up to 20,000 lines per centimeter.  The radio device clearly establishes his piority in the discovery of radio. 

The shipboard quench-spark transmitter produced by the Lowenstein Radio Company and licensed under Nikola Tesla Company patents, was installed on the U.S. Naval vessels prior to World War I.

U.S. Navy Shipboard Transmitter.
U.S. Navy shipboard transmitter manufactured by the Löwenstein Radio Company. This was a 5-kilowatt set capable of 1,500-mile transmission used during World War I. A handwritten caption by Nikola Tesla reads: “Apparatus installed under my patents on many war vessels which according to Secretary Daniels is ‘superior’ to any other.”

In December 1901, Marconi established wireless communication between Britain and the Newfoundland, Canada, earning him the Nobel prize in 1909.  But much of Marconi’s work was not original.  In 1864, James Maxwell theorized electromagnetic waves.  In 1887, Heinrich Hertz proved Maxwell’s theories.  Later, Sir Oliver Logde extended the Hertz prototype system.  The Brandley coherer increased the distance messages could be transmitted.  The coherer was perfected by Marconi.

However, the heart of radio transmission is based upon four tuned circuits for transmitting and receiving.  It is Tesla’s original concept demonstrated in his famous lecture at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia in 1893.  The four circuits, used in two pairs, are still a fundamental part of all radio and television equipment.

The United States Supreme Court, in 1943 held Marconi’s most important patent invalid, recognizing Tesla’s more significant contribution as the inventor of radio technology.

Tesla built an experimental station in Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1899, to experiment with high voltage, high frequency electricity and other phenomena.

Above: Experimental station at Colorado Springs where the first wireless transmission experiments were performed (1899-1900).

When the Colorado Springs Tesla Coil magnifying transmitter was energized,  it created sparks 30 feet long.  From the outside antenna, these sparks could be seen from a distance of ten miles.  From this laboratory, Tesla generated and sent out wireless waves which mediated energy, without wires for miles.

Above: The flame-like discharge measures sixty-five feet across.  Tesla sits in front of the oscillator. 

 In Colorado Springs, where he stayed from May 1899 until 1900, Tesla made what he regarded as his most important discovery– terrestrial stationary waves.  By this discovery he proved that the Earth could be used as a conductor and would be as responsive as a tuning fork to electrical vibrations of a certain frequency.  He also lighted 200 lamps without wires from a distance of 25 miles( 40 kilometers) and created man-made lightning.  At one time he was certain he had received signals from another planet in his Colorado laboratory, a claim that was met with disbelief in some scientific journals.

Above: Experiments with differently attuned coils, and responding to the vibration transmitted to them through the earth from an electrical oscillator.

The old Waldorf Astoria was the residence of Nikola Tesla for many years.  He lived there when he was at the height of financial and intellectual power.  Tesla  organized elaborate dinners, inviting famous people who later witnessed spectacular electrical experiments in his laboratory.

Above: Symmetrical discharges from additionally tuned Tesla coil, where discharges are stopped from streaming to the roof of the building.

Financially supported by J. Pierpont Morgan, Tesla built the Wardenclyffe laboratory and its famous transmitting tower in Shoreham, Long Island between 1901 and 1905. This huge landmark was 187 feet high, capped by a 68-foot copper dome which housed the magnifying transmitter.  It was planned to be the first broadcast system, transmitting both signals and power without wires to any point on the globe.  The huge magnifying transmitter, discharging high frequency electricity, would turn the earth into a gigantic dynamo which would project its electricity in unlimited amounts anywhere in the world.

Tesla’s concept of wireless electricity was used to power ocean liners, destroy warships, run industry and transportation and send communications instantaneously all over the globe.  To stimulate the public’s imagination, Tesla suggested that this wireless power could even be used for interplanetary communication.  If Tesla were confident to reach Mars, how much less difficult to reach Paris.  Many newspapers and periodicals interviewed Tesla and described his new system for supplying wireless power to run all of the earth’s industry.

Above: The Famous Tesla Tower erected in Shoreham, Long Island, New York was 187 feet high, the spherical top was 68 feet in diameter.  The Tower, which was to be used by Nikola Tesla is his “World Wireless” was never finished.


Because of a dispute between Morgan and Tesla as to the final use of the tower.  Morgan withdrew his funds.  The financier’s classic comment was, “If anyone can draw on the power, where do we put the meter?”

The erected, but incomplete tower was demolished in 1917 for wartime security reasons.  The site where the Wardenclyffe tower stood still exists with its 100 feet deep foundation still intact.  Tesla’s laboratory designed by Stanford White in 1901 is today still in good condition and is graced with a bicentennial plaque.  

Above: The tragedy of Tesla in Wardenclyffe, the tower was dismantled on July 4, 1917.  It was dynamited and razed by the mortgage holder, the proprietor of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel.

Tesla lectured to the scientific community on his inventions in New York, Philadelphia and St. Louis and before scientific organizations in both England and France in 1892. Tesla’s lectures and writings of the 1890s aroused wide admiration among contemporaries popularized his inventions and inspired untold numbers of younger men to enter the new field of radio and electrical science.

            Nikola Tesla was one of the most celebrated personalities in the American press, in this century. According to Life Magazine’s special issue of September, 1997, Tesla is among the 100 most famous people of the last 1,000 years.  He is one of the great men who divert the stream of human history. Tesla’s celebrity was in its height at the turn of the century.  His discoveries, inventions and vision had widespread acceptance by the public, the scientific community and American press.  Tesla’s discoveries had extensive coverage in the scientific journals, the daily and weekly press as well as in the foremost literary and intellectual publications of the day.  He was the Super Star. 


Walter and Lao Russell, Friends of Tesla

Both of whose ideas were suppressed 

Tesla wrote many autobiographical articles for the prominent journal Electrical Experimenter, collected in the book, My Inventions.  Tesla was gifted with intense powers of visualization and exceptional memory from early youth on.  He was able to fully construct, develop and perfect his inventions completely in his mind before committing them to paper. 

According to Hugo Gernsback, Tesla was possessed of a striking physical appearance over six feet tall with deep set eyes and a stately manner.  His impressions of Tesla, were of a man endowed with remarkable physical and mental freshness, ready to surprise the world with more and  more inventions as he grew older.  A lifelong bachelor he led a somewhat isolated existence, devoting his full energies to science. 

In 1894, he was given honorary doctoral degrees by Columbia and Yale University and the Elliot Cresson  medal by the Franklin Institute.  In 1934, the city of Philadelphia awarded him the John Scott medal for his polyphase power system. He was an honorary member of the National Electric Light Association and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. On one occasion, he turned down an invitation from Kaiser Wilhelm II to come to Germany to demonstrate his experiments and to receive a high decoration.

            In 1915, a New York Times article announced that Tesla and Edison were to share the Nobel Prize for physics.  Oddly, neither man received the prize, the reason being unclear.  It was rumored that Tesla refused the prize because he would not share with Edison, and because Marconi had already received his.

Tesla’s friend Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain), famous American writer

Mark Twain in Teslas Lab spring of 1894

On his 75th birthday in 1931, the inventor appeared on the cover of Time Magazine. On this occasion, Tesla received congratulatory letters from more than 70 pioneers in science and engineering including Albert Einstein. These letters were mounted and presented to Tesla in the form of a testimonial volume.  

            Tesla died on January 7th, 1943 in the Hotel New Yorker, where he had lived for the last ten years of his life.  Room 3327 on the 33rd floor is the two-room suites  he occupied.

            A state funeral was held at  St. John the Divine Cathedral in New York City. Telegrams of condolence were received from many notables, including the first lady Eleanor Roosevelt and Vice President Wallace. Over 2000 people attended, including several Nobel Laureates. He was cremated in Ardsley on the Hudson, New York. His ashes were interned in a golden sphere, Tesla’s favorite shape, on permanent display at the Tesla Museum in Belgrade along with his death mask.

            In his speech presenting Tesla with the Edison medal, Vice President Behrend of the Institute of Electrical Engineers eloquently expressed the following:  “Were we to seize and eliminate from our industrial world the result of Mr. Tesla’s work, the wheels of industry would cease to turn, our electric cars and trains would stop, our towns would be dark and our mills would be idle and dead.  His name marks an epoch in the advance of electrical science.”  Mr. Behrend ended his speech with a paraphrase of Pope’s lines on Newton:  “Nature and nature’s laws lay hid by night.  God said ‘Let Tesla be’ and all was light.”


                        “The world will wait a long time for Nikola Tesla’s equal in

                                           achievement and imagination.”  E. ARMSTRONG


                                    Nikola Tesla’s Awards and Recognition


In 1917, Tesla was awarded the Edison Medal, the most coveted electrical prize in the United States.

Nikola Tesla’s name has been honored with an International Unit of Magnetic Flux Density called “Tesla.”

The United States Postal Service honored Tesla with a commemorative stamp in 1983.

Tesla was inducted into the Inventor’s Hall of Fame in 1975.

The Nikola Tesla Award is one of the most distinguished honors presented by the Institute of Electrical Engineers. The award has been given annually since 1976.

The Nikola Tesla Statue is located on Goat Island to honor the man whose inventions were incorporated into the Niagara Falls Power Station  in 1895. Tesla is known as the inventor of polyphase alternating current.

The Nikola Tesla Corner Sign, located at the intersection of 40th Street and 6th Avenue in Manhattan, is a constant reminder to all New Yorkers of the greatness of this genius.


Though he was known and recognized for many great things, probably the greatest of them all was what has been hidden the most…free energy.


The time to realize the whole of his knowledge is now. The time for the American Government to release any and all material related to Nikola Tesla must be made, we have waited long enough.


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