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Cold Fusion: The efforts of mankind in the race to engineer LENR

Probably the most recognizable name in Cold Fusion efforts world-wide is Andrea Rossi. It must be said that there are many notable researchers and scientists behind these progressions and I will attempt to update this section throughout the coming days to put together a comprehensive over-view of where we are in these efforts.

Andrea Rossi writes to E.I.R.S. and expresses his interest and support:

Dear Mike Tate,

First of all, thank you for your attention.
I wish the best luck to EIRS, very interesting organization.
You have all my moral support.

Warm Regards,
Andrea Rossi

In case you haven’t heard of Andrea Rossi, he is one of the more publicized global researchers trying to build a way to the true reality and future of cold fusion. Here’s a short video:

October 1 Q&A With Andrea Rossi

October 1, 2012

Below are some questions between Andrea Rossi and I today, along with his responses:

1. When do you expect to be creating electricity with the hot cat
(Or have you already done so)?

I HOPE 1 YEAR, MAYBE BEFORE

2. You have mentioned that certifiers do not approve of using the
E-Cat to drive itself. How can you achieve the “dream of Tesla” if you
cannot self-loop the E-Cat?

MAKING THE ELECTRICITY BY THE HOT CAT TO DRIVE THE ECATS

3. We have seen the voluntary safety certification for the 1 MW
plant — How is this different from “product certification”?

THE SAFETY CERTIFICATION CERTIFIES THAT THE PLANT, MADE AS IT HAS BEEN APPROVED, IS SAFE. THE PRODUCT CERTIFICATION CERTIFIES THE PERFORMANCES OF THE PRODUCT, NOT JUST ITS SAFETY

4. When might product certification be completed?

CONFIDENTIAL

5. Are you building the 1 MW plants in both Europe and the USA?

YES

6. How soon will it be before people will be able to visit a working 1 MW plant?

I PREFER NOT TO ANSWER, BUT IT WILL BE POSSIBLE ONLY FOR QUALIFIED PERSONS: IT WILL NOT BE A THEATER.

7. Will you guarantee a COP of 6 for a Hot Cat device?

I THINK SO. TESTS ARE NOT FINISHED, BUT WE ARE OBTAINING VERY GOOD PERFORMANCES, MAKING ANY KIND OF MEASUREMENT.

8. Will you be building any industrial units smaller than 1 MW?

YES, EVENTUALLY

9. Will you be building any industrial units larger than 1 MW — if
so how large?

MAYBE

10. How many non-military E-Cat plants have been ordered so far?

CONFIDENTIAL

11. How soon can we expect the validation report to be published?

DOES NOT DEPEND ON ME

THANKS TO YOU FOR YOUR QUALIFIED ATTENTION
WARM REGARDS,
ANDREA ROSSI

E.N. Tsyganov’s famous paper entitled “Cold Nuclear Fusion” is below.

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Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

Direct Download

Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.


Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be:

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,

Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

Direct Download

A very interesting paper by Francesco Santandrea:


The Quantum Space Theory (QST) could explain the LENR

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Here is NASA’s admittance of undeniable LENR evidence: 

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Dennis BushnellLow Energy Nuclear Reactions, the Realism and the Outlook
by Dennis Bushnell, Chief Scientist, NASA Langley Research Center

Although there is a quite long history of “anomalous” observations, including transmutations, the “recent” consideration of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) began in the late 80’s with the Pons/Fleischmann observations and assertions regarding what they termed “Cold Fusion.” However, subsequent difficulties with experimental replication and an utter lack of convincing theoretical explication forced research in this arena “underground” with minimal financial support.

The current situation is that we now have over two decades of hundreds of experiments worldwide indicating heat and transmutations with minimal radiation and low energy input. By any rational measure, this evidence indicates something real is occurring. So, is LENR “Real?” Evidently, from the now long standing and diverse experimental evidence. And, yes – with effects occurring from using diverse materials, methods of energy addition etc. This is far from a “Narrow Band” set of physical phenomena.

Allan Widom (left) and Lewis Larsen (right)Allan Widom (left) and Lewis Larsen (right)The next consideration is “What is real? What is happening?” For NASA Langley, the epiphany moment on LENR was the publication of the Widom-Larsen Weak Interaction LENR Theory. It is currently under study and experimental verification (or not) at Langley. The theory appears to explain nearly all the various and often variegated experimental observations and shifted the LENR theoretical focus from some way of “fooling” Particle Nuclear Physics/The Strong Force to Condensed Matter Nuclear Physics, Collective Effects, The Weak Force and “Heavy Electrons.”Beta decay results in a significant release of energyThe Strong Force Particle physicists have evidently been correct all along. “Cold Fusion” is not possible. However, via collective effects/ condensed matter quantum nuclear physics, LENR is allowable without any “miracles.” The theory states that once some energy is added to surfaces loaded with hydrogen/protons, if the surface morphology enables high localized voltage gradients, then heavy electrons leading to ultra low energy neutrons will form– neutrons that never leave the surface. The neutrons set up isotope cascades which result in beta decay, heat and transmutations with the heavy electrons converting the beta decay gamma into heat.The theory indicates several key issues/circumstances are required to enable-to-optimize LENR and explains the various experimental observations, including the often long initiation times required in some experiments. If the theory is experimentally validated in detail, it provides the understanding to shift LENR research from discovery into engineering development. The theory indicates energy densities, some several million times chemical. The current experiments are in the 10’s to hundreds range. However, several labs have blown up studying LENR and windows have melted, indicating when the conditions are “right” prodigious amounts of energy can be produced and released. There are some six or so groups claiming device outputs in the 100 watt range and three others claiming kilowatts. Efforts are ongoing within NASA and other organizations to validate (or not) these claims. It should be noted that these devices are essentially “Edisonian,” the result of attempts at experimental “discovery” vice ab initio design from the weak interaction theories per se.Therefore, the LENR situation and outlook is the following:

  • Something real is happening.
  • The weak interaction theories suggest what the physics might be.
  • There are efforts ongoing to explore the validity of the theories.
  • There are continuing Edisonian efforts to produce “devices” mainly for heat or in some cases transmutations.
  • There are efforts to “certify” such devices.
  • NASA LaRC has begun LENR design studies guided by the Weak Interaction Theory

     Spaceworks/NASA LENR space plane concepts

We are still far from the theoretical limits of the weak interaction physics for LENR performance and are in fact inventing (in real time) the requisite engineering, along with verifying the physics. When we concentrated upon nuclear engineering beginning in the 1940’s we “jumped” to the strong force/ particle physics and leapt over the weak force/condensed matter nuclear physics. We are going “back” now to study and hopefully develop this arena.The “precautionary principle” demands that we core down and determine realism for this arena, given the truly massive-to-mind boggling benefits – solutions to climate, energy and the limitations that restrict the NASA Mission areas, all of them. The key to space exploration is energetics. The key to supersonic transports and neighbor-friendly personal fly/drive air vehicles is energetics, as simplex examples of the potential implications of this area of research.There are estimates using just the performance of some of the devices under study that 1% of the nickel mined on the planet each year could produce the world’s energy requirements at the order of 25% the cost of coal.No promises, but some seriously “strange” things are going on, which we may be closer to understanding and if we can optimize/engineer such, the world changes. Worldwide, it is worth far more resources than are currently being devoted to this research arena. There is a need to core down and determine “truth” and if useful, the need to engineer and apply.

Related information:

Video: NASA LaRC | Abundant Clean/Green Energy by Joseph Zawodny.http://futureinnovation.larc.nasa.gov/view/articles/what/cif.html

Video: NASA’s Method for a Clean Nuclear Energy For Your Power Operated Technology.http://technologygateway.nasa.gov/media/CC/lenr/lenr.html

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Below is pulled directly from:LENR-CANR.ORG – A library of papers about cold fusion

LENR-to-Market Weekly –October 4, 2012

Highlights this week include: an E-Cat conference coming October 12 in Pordenone, Italy; multiple technical clarifications on the E-Cat; FutureProbable posts their LENR demo video; Toyota returns to cold fusion research; Brillouin energy theory; George Miley’s patent; old BBC documentary; funding for hot fusion in question.By Sterling D. Allan
Pure Energy Systems News
Once again, we bring you a compilation of various news items about the various LENR companies since our September 27 compilation.No mainstream news this week.See also Cold Fusion Times.

  • LENR Companies
    • Rossi, Leonardo Corp – E-Cat
      • Technology
        • What Would Happen if the E-Cat Secrets Were Revealed? – I have read in a number of places people hoping and calling for Andrea Rossi to spill the beans and just go ahead and reveal his secrets for the benefit of humanity. We know that that is not his approach, and it seems to me that it is unlikely that he is going to… (E-CatWorld; October 3, 2012)
          • Considerations on E-Cat Prototype – As more people request the E-Cats devices developed by Andrea Rossi be released to the market, Rossi has had to be very careful not to release any information about his invention. In the… (ECatReport; September 27, 2012)
        • October 1 Q&A With Andrea Rossi – Below are some questions I sent to Andrea Rossi today, along with his responses: 1. When do you expect to be creating electricity with the hot cat (Or have you already done so)? I HOPE 1 YEAR, MAYBE BEFORE 2. You have mentioned that certifiers do not approve of using the E-Cat to drive… (E-CatWorld; October 13, 2012)
        • Scaling E-Cat Operations – Steven Karels, a frequent poster to Andrea Rossi’s Journal of Nuclear Physics, recently asked Rossi a series of questions about scaling down the size and operation of the E-Cats. The reason for his query raises all kinds of possibilities, once again for domestic use of the technology. (ECatReport; October 3, 2012)
        • Nebraska Engineer Follows Rossi’s Advancements – Within the last month, the Nebraska Engineer has reported on the advancement of Andrea Rossi’s Hot Cat. Dr. Mark Nispel reported on the Hot Cat in August, repeating that it operates in excess of 1100 degrees C, which makes it capable of producing steam. With this ability, as Dr. Nispel points out, the Hot Cat can be used for generation of electricity. (ECatReport; September 30, 2012)
        • Annual Cost & Maintenance of the E-Cat – Andrea Rossi was recently asked by Steven Karels, a frequent poster on the Journal of Nuclear Physics, about the cost of running an industrial, 1 MW E-Cat. He also asked Rossi about maintenance of the units, and whether or not this would be done by a third party. (ECatReport; September 29, 2012)
          • E-Cat industry: 10 000 euro per year for maintenance – As you know, the version 1 MW of thermal ‘ E-Cat is already on the market. As we revealed recently in an ‘ interview the same Andrea Rossi , ordering it you should “receive” in four months. (GreenStyle.it; October 4, 2012)
        • Rossi Clarifies his Position will publish Data when ecat Patent is granted – Andrea Rossi will publish a full report on the science behind his ecat low energy reaction (LENR) technology when he receives an international patent for the device. (EnergyCatalyzer3; September 30, 2012)
        • E-Cat: the failure of the test is the fault of the Swedish Red – Andrea Rossi is there and returns to defend his E-Cat , even in the specific variant at high temperatures commonly called Hot-Cat. The story is well known: a Swedish company, the Hydro Fusion , was not convinced of the goodness of the reactor and its ability to produce electricity. (GreenStyle.it; September 29, 2012)
        • The core of the “Theory of Quantized Space” (which explains the LENR) has been published in the Journal of Nuclear Physics – Andrea Rossi has published our article: The Quantum Space Theory (QST) could explain the LENR. We take this opportunity to thank Andrea Rossi to have taken into account these ideas. (22Passi; October 4, 2012)
      • Pordenone E-Cat Conference, October 12
        • Program for Pordenone E-Cat Conference – Here’s a translated version of the program for the October 12 E-Cat conference in Pordenone, Italy. The original Italian version can be read here E-Cat | Energy safely and efficiently? Event Date: Friday, October 12, 2012 – 15:00 There is no doubt that the problem of management of energy resources has always been of fundamental importance in relation to… (E-CatWorld; October 4, 2012)
        • Upcoming Pordenone Conference on E-Cat – Having finished the Zurich conference at the beginning of September, Andrea Rossi will be holding another conference in Pordenone, Italy, starting on October 12th. According to Greenstyle, Rossi himself will speak at 3pm at this conference, Aldo Proia will speak at 3:30 and Salvatore Majorana will follow up at 4pm with their presentations at the Pordenone conference. (ECatReport; October 3, 2012)
        • E-Cat Andrea Rossi at Pordenone Technology October 12 – After ‘ meeting in Zurich , Andrea Rossi returns home for a conference dedicated to ‘ E-Cat . It will be the technology hub of Pordenone, 12 October next, to host Rossi will not be alone. Among the speakers of the conference entitled “Energy Efficiently?” There will be Aldo Proia , commercial director of Prometeon SRL and the licensee of the E-Cat in Italy. (GreenStyle.it; October 2, 2012)
        • The E-Cat to Pordenone Technology – Alea iacta east!’s Finally out, on the site of the technological Pordenone, the announcement of the conference in which eight days between Andrea Rossi will officially launch his E-Cat for the industrial market Italian:  (22Passi; October 4, 2012)
        • New E-CAT Meeting Scheduled for Pordenone, Italy on Oct 12 [Update: Rossi teases] – There’s not too much information about this yet, but a conference about the E-Cat is scheduled to be held in Pordenone, Italy on October 12. The only details I can find about this event come from an advertisement for the event was posted in a Facebook group here The text of the ad is… (E-CatWorld; October 2, 2012)
      • Business
        • Rossi: “We are making important contracts” – Just a few days ago in the Journal of Nuclear Physics, a frequent poster to the journal posted some calculations. Steven Karels often communicates with Andrea Rossi concerning developments with the E-Cat series of LENR units he is developing. Karels expressed to Rossi that large commercial firms should be showing interest in the 1 MW E-Cats, considering the savings every year just in heating bills. (ECatReport; September 30, 2012)
      • Overview
        • Cold fusion on the way to market -In January 2011, the Italian engineer Andrea Rossi had unveiled its Cold Fusion prototype “E-Cat” ( cold fusion in the Black Box? ). The way of measuring whether it actually produces more heat energy than was expended in the form of electricity was, however, open to question. In early October 2011 was followed… (Heise.de; October 1, 2012)
        • Cold Fusion E-Cat: low cost and without the nuclear waste by Andrea Rossi – Back with an investigation of the Corriere della Sera, the noble debate on the alleged existence of cold fusion by Ing. Andrea Ross supported the academic prof. Sergio Focardi. (EconomiaErisparmio; October 4, 2012)
        • E-Cat | Energy safely and efficiently? – In this context, Technological Pole and Prometeon want to draw attention to the technology of cold fusion and in particular on the E-Cat developed by prof. Andrea Rossi, a system that will be marketed soon in Italy by the company. (StatoQuotidiano.it; October 4, 2012)
    • Toyota
      • Toyota is Active in Cold Fusion Research Again – Toyota the giant Japanese automaker is apparently active in cold fusion or low energy nuclear reaction research again. New Energy Times’ Steven B. Krivitreported that Toyota has apparently hired the Electric Power Research Institute a think tank in Palo Alto, California, to conduct an analysis on LENR. A series of articles by Krivit indicates that Toyota is working with researchers at Osaka University and Kobe University in an attempt to use nanomaterials and hydrogen isotope gas absorption to achieve a low energy nuclear reaction. (EnergyCatalyzer3; October 1, 2012)
    • Brillouin 
      • Brillouin Energy Theory – This can be modelled in the theory of UFT228 by electron tunnelling of an electron into a barrier. The phonon wave is a spacetime wave in ECE theory. The capture of the electron by the proton is quantum tunnelling in our language, as in notes 229(1) and 229(2). (Dr. Byron Evans; September 27, 2012)
    • George Miley
      • Does George Miley Have the First USPTO Awarded Patent for Cold Fusion? – This is news is a little old, but I think it is worth mentioning here, and I hadn’t posted about it yet. According to this document, on July 24th, the United States Patent Office issued a patent to George H. Miley for a process listed as “Dislocation site formation techniques”. The abstract on the… (E-CatWorld; September 29, 2012)
      • Granted Patents For LENR-Related Works – We have already received two reports regarding patents granted for LENR-related works. This latest achievement has absolutely raised hopes and interest in finding an alternative source of energy through low energy nuclear reactions. For the month of September alone, there were already two patents for different technologies related to LENR. (AndreaRossiECat; October 1, 2012)
    • FutureProbable
      • LENR Thermal Power Plant – Prototype of a thermal co-generation fuel types LENR nickel (~ 4g) and water (0.872g) steam with a low primary energy consumption average yield of 100% maximum power Central 315Wh power consumption on the primary 230Wh in continuous operation. in this embodiment lacks a condenser for recycling the steam from the reactor. (LENRNews; October 3, 2012)
  • EventsGeneral Cold Fusion
    • EPRI Report
      • EPRI Publishes Report on Energy Production from Nanoscale Metal Lattice – Thanks to E-Cat World readers for bringing attention to a new report published by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) entitled “Program on Technology Innovation: Assessment of Novel Energy Production Mechanisms in a Nanoscale Metal Lattice”. The report was prepared by Brian Ahern of Vibronic Energy Technologies Corporation and included an attempt to replicate the… (E-CatWorld; September 28, 2012)
    • Iraj Parchamazad: LENR with Zeolites – In June 2012, I went to interview Dr. Melvin Miles on his career investigating cold fusion electrolytic cells as both a Professor and a Navy researcher, now retired. I didn’t know I’d get two interviews that day. We met in the office of Dr. Iraj Parchamazad, Chairman of the Chemistry Department at the University of LaVerne, in LaVerne, California, who is also studying low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) using an unusual environment on the nano-scale: zeolites. (ColdFusionNow; September 30, 2012) (And LENRNews)
    • Dr. Mark Nispel Summarizes Advancements In LENR – Dr. Mark Nispel has reported just this year that, apparently, LENR is gaining the recognition previously denied. It was, in his words, “dismissed as a scam” in 1989, but is now becoming “an emerging early technology”. To support this, he reminds us that NASA stated just last year that 10 years of further research would make LENR available to the masses. (ECatReport; October 2, 2012)
    • Yet Another Fusion Process is Coming – Muon catalyzed fusion is another interesting process that could well bring nearly unlimited low cost electrical power to market. Muon catalyzed fusion has been observed for decades, inconsistently and at productivity insufficient to be considered a viable energy source. (NewEnergyandFuel; October 1, 2012)

    • Old documentary from BBC – This is an old documentary from BBC Horizon “too close to the sun”. Dr Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons behind cold fusion (LENRNews.eu; September 28, 2012)
    • Applications
      • Potential Military Uses for Cold Fusion – Obviously nobody likes to contemplate the military uses for a technology like cold fusion or low energy nuclear reaction (LENR). Yet every like every other technology we’ve developed it’ll probably be used in war sooner or later. (ColdFusion3; October 3, 2012)
      • Cold Fusion”, will decide the market? – Well, you start to get serious at last . Just yesterday threshold Paul had brought the Corriere della Sera the debate on the E-Cat: (22Passi; October 4, 2012)
    • Politics
      • NYT: Funding for Fusion in Question – Thanks to Joe Shea for pointing out a New York Times article published today which discusses the future of a giant laser used in the US National Nuclear Security Administration’s fusion project. Funding for the laser runs out today, and more funds will need to be allocated by Congress in order to keep the… (E-CatWorld; September 30, 2012)
      • Economics of Cold Fusion LENR Power US Department of Energy – The long cold fusion summer is winding down and the race to LENR engineering is heating up. With mainstream news and science entering the fray (US News) and (European Union-Directorate-General for Research and Innovation) the likely-hood of an October Surprise becomes imminent. Hundreds of political, (…) (ColdFusionNow; October 1, 2012)
    • CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS – Cold Fusion Now Online Art Contest and Curation – (art sign by Sheree Rensel) CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS : COLD FUSION NOW ONLINE ART Contest and Curation We are looking to build up our ART GALLERY page, so starting October 1st through December 1st Cold Fusion Now will throw down (…) (ColdFusionNow; September 30, 2012)
  • Sources:

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PESN Coverage of E-CatFor a more exhaustive listing, see News:Rossi_Cold_Fusion | Mainstream | News:Cold_Fusion

MORE…

See also

Resources at PESWiki.com

sources and credits: http://pesn.com/2012/10/04/9602198_LENR-to-Market_Weekly_October4/, http://www.e-catworld.com/2012/10/october-1-qa-with-andrea-rossi/, http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=510, http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?m=201210, http://www.xmwallpapers.com/wallpaper/computer%20generated/3d%20misc/wallpaper_computer_generated_3d_misc_Cold_Fusion.htm, http://energycatalyzer.blogspot.com/2011/07/ecatreportandrea-rossi-on-e-cat.html

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