Home > Uncategorized > Consciousness in Science – Part 1 and 2

Consciousness in Science – Part 1 and 2


One of our main efforts of research here at E.I.R.S. is the collective investigations into the science of consciousness. With all the breakthroughs in the dynamics of our natural world, the topic of physics and consciousness is becoming more well renowned by physicists. In the spring of 2003, the Quantum Mind Conference on “Consciousness, Quantum Physics and The Brain” was held Arizona, USA. Their web site states, “Recent experimental evidence suggests quantum nonlocality occurring in conscious and subconscious brain function, and functional quantum processes in molecular biology are becoming more and more apparent. Moreover macroscopic quantum processes are being proposed as intrinsic features in cosmology, evolution and social interactions.”

When we know that we are all a part of this Non-Locality, or Oneness, we can make strides to improve our society, our nation and our world.

Below I will include links to the most ground-breaking discoveries being made on this front. Consciousness:

Experimental and Theoretical Approaches to Conscious Processing are continually growing more and more ambitious as we strive to understand what is largely only now being revealed to us through scientific research.

The Conscious Electromagnetic Information (Cemi) Field Theory:


Synchronous Firing and Its Influence on the Brain’s Electromagnetic Field:


The Physics of Collective Consciousness:


Functional MRI and the Study of Human Consciousness:


Mechanisms of Social Cognition:


The Nature of Consciousness:
Consciousness Mediated Spin II:Genesis of Self-Referential Matrix Law,& the Ontology & Mathematics of Ether:

Quantum physicists, neuroscientists, psychologists and mystics have evolved to the point where a significant paradigm shift is happening. The universe is viewed as sympathetically connected, unifying, matter, energy and consciousness.

Physics unites the many mathematical principles and perhaps one day physics will merge with spiritual and religious principles. The gap is narrowing.

By the mere sample I’ve given here, it surely demonstrates the connection of the role of science and consciousness plays. It’s an interweaving of basic fundamental processes. Science has everything to do with consciousness, it is One with it. There is no one place something “starts” and “ends”. It is a continuum of the same. Just like there are not real defining lines of the dimensional levels. All is connected.

There is a mystical world that we traverse where there is no time/space and dimensional divisions. Such as there are no divisions between the sciences of the dimensions – for all properties are found throughout the universe. There are worlds in our many realities that we haven’t begun to explore, either as scientists or mystics.

As science is discovering more and more uniquely mysterious properties of the universe, we are discovering more and more of the properties of our being and our consciousness.

All things are made up of cells each resonating together in energetic harmony. Neurocardiologists have discovered that 60% to 65% of heart cells are not muscle cells but neural cells which are identical to the neural cells in the brain. The heart and brain contains the very same neurotransmitters, the same axonal and dendritic connections.
(Mercogliano and Debus 1999).

The heart’s neural cells send information all over the body to keep the body working as one energetic harmonious whole. The mind, body and emotions are continually in dialogue with the heart.

Since our cells contain 99.999% space. That space is filled with energy moving at the speed of light. Information is moving at the speed of light!

If you really want to know what the body looks like, look up to the evening sky and see the stars, the cells of cosmic energy scattered through space. If you really want to know what the body looks like, listen to the waves and the wind for the energy they carry. If you really want to know what the body’s energy feels like, be aware of a gently breeze and sense the molecules of information breathed in and out by every person and thing that has ever lived. If you want to get a glimpse of how your whole body/heart/brain system sounds when it works collectively, listen to a symphony.

To quote Black Elk, “Peace..comes within the souls of men when they realize their relationship, their oneness, with the universe and all its powers and when they realize that at the center of the Universe dwells, Wakan Tanka, and that this center is really everywhere, it is it within each of us.”

T.H. Huxley says, “The question of all questions for humanity, the problem that lies behind all others and is more interesting than any of them is that of the determination of man’s place in Nature and his relation to the Cosmos.”

Quantum physics suggests that by redirecting our focus, our intentions and attentions, we bring in a new course of events while simultaneously releasing an existing course of events that no longer serve us. A matter of replacing, renewing and regenerating a new thought form that better serves to heighten the consciousness of everyone. We must find, understand and fully comprehend this interrelationship and oneness of our humanitarian nature and the impact on the whole of creation. We are realizing the complete being we are by understanding that even at the quantum level we affect things around us.

In finding our place in Nature, we just may save the Earth and ourselves in the process.

“To know the mechanics of the wave is to know the entire secret of Nature.”
Walter Russell


The psychodynamics of the mind as an electromagnetic structure establishes the nature and reality of consciousness as an interdimensional energy process. It is an electrical process of cause and effect.

Our consciousness determines our vibration (frequency and amplitude) When we realize that time and space are really ONE I think we then go beyond a simple understanding. This is what was talking about concerning frequency (time) and amplitude (energy)…and time traveling – and to me, this would mean being spiritually energized to walk in the 4th dimension freely. According to physics states the fourth dimension exists (subsequently physicist say 10 dimensions exist that they have mathematically figured so far). We can thus apply it to other spiritual areas as in various mysticism practices.

When our energy-amplitude is raised higher it is synonymous with our frequency (time) getting higher. When our frequency raises the distance between the waves are closer, therefore shortening time considerably. So Time is the distance between two points. What your amplitude-energy is determines how efficient you travel that time line.

For instance, You are standing by me…you raise your energy, which raises your frequency [if you are efficient at it {efficient in science is least amount of work for the energy expended)]. You dart across the room and come back to standing by me. I do not see you – except for the transition period of your energy..you coming and going. You might look like a fuzz of light at first..(dart across the room and come back) then a fuzz of light again. This is all that would be noticeable. Or perhaps if one is in movement while this energy transition is taking place, we may observe a “blurring” and see many different phases as in seen in someone taking consecutive pictures of a track and field long jumper. The realities are “blurred” together, and as physics states, can be seen in the multiple dimensions at once.

This parallels the concept of the Superstring theory which assumes there are an infinite and alternate series of parallel universes that exist. The viewpoint of many theoretical physicists: light is a vibration of the unseen 4th dimension. What is light? Light, electricity, and magnetism are manifestations of the same thing called electromagnetic radiation that encompasses the electromagnetic spectrum in which only a small fraction of light is visible to us.

When we do the “dart across the room” experiment, only the small visible light will be seen as a fraction of the whole energetic transition.


When we resonate as in the above example, it can also be viewed as “musical notes” that represents a mode of vibration, a distinct resonance or particle. Michio Kaku a physicist and author of “Hyperspace” states, “Matter is nothing but the harmonies created by this vibrating string. The laws of physics can be compared to the laws of harmony allowed on the string. The universe itself, composed of countless vibrating strings, would then be comparable to a symphony.”

“The energy of the heart, right down to our DNA is musical and rhythmic in nature. Geneticist, Susumu Ohno at the Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope in Duarte, CA, has translated the 4 nucleotides on the strands of DNA. When performed, listeners compared it to Bach, Brahms and Chopin. Listeners were moved to tears.”

“The universe consists solely of waves of motion…There exists nothing other than vibration.” relates Walter Russell in “A New Concept of the Universe”. In vibratory physics, the principles that make sound into harmonious music are the same principles that govern all associating vibrations throughout the universe – and that includes everything that there is. Vibrations are dynamic things not unlike “living” things since they are in a mutual state of “harmony”.

When sound harmonics form direct harmonic relations the two vibrating sounds and their chords of vibration are said to be sympathetic to each other. In other words, resonance – like attracts like. This combined frequency dictates that what happens to one vibratorily happens to the other simultaneously in varying degrees of harmony or dissonance. This is the Law of Cycles as presented by John W. Keely’s “Law of Sympathetic Vibratory Physics”.

“Music is formless and is therefore the perfect expression of the formless.”
Innayat Khan

Musical notes or sounds can be converted numerically as in the example in the previous section regarding the Fibonacci numbers found in nature. According to mathematics principles, a series of vibrations will multiply many times its own pitch, thus increasing harmonically all those that are near. This is the Law of Harmonic Pitch.

This multiplication of frequency and amplitudes is thought of in relation to the Ascension process. All things are energy, thus our “energy bodies” are becoming more attuned, reaching a higher vibrational rate, to the dynamic energetic force of the Universe. Extending and expanding vibrational rates happens in nature and we are merely a part of nature, so we should too, in theory, be capable of “ascension” as dense physical material beings.


“He made the whole world an instrument of sound, and an instrument for carrying messages, resounding praise to the Creator of all.
Frank Waters – The Book of the Hopi

There is something called the Sacred Sound Current which correlates to the spiritual Hindu “OM” and the Sufi “HU”, and the Sant Mat “Shabd”. This Music of the Spheres, Logos or Word as called in mystical teachings, goes beyond our limited spoken language. Such ethereal music is referred to also as the Sound of God or the Breath of God since the sound permeates all things. And as we know, all things are composed of energy.

This all-pervading sound in the current of the Ocean of Consciousness is believed to be the connecting link between God and man. The divine currents are always playing a symphony of ethereal music; however, it does not become audible until we have progressed spiritually enough to hear with the inner ear. Additionally, many mystics, ancient and modern, have reported seeing various colors with the inner eye(s) while in meditation.

As physics deems, all is in a vibrational state, and thus can be converted into mathematical renditions, musical notes and color frequencies. Shabd is believed to be the pinnacle point of all the powers of nature in which, according to scriptures, is the method in which God creates.

I dwell in undefiled Light and a Thought revealed itself perceptibly through the great Sound…And it is a Word by virtue of the Sound; it was sent to illumine those who dwell in darkness…I am a Light that illuminates the All. I am the Light…”
Trimorphic Protennoia – Nag Hammadi

Light and Sound is also viewed as synonymous with each other in the ancient scriptures. This has been mentioned in various contexts within this site as well. They are Interconnected and part of the Whole within the wave/particle duality.

We can parallel the holographic universe concept with what Philo of Alexandria’s wrote circa 40 CE, “The whole creation, this entire world perceived by our senses is a copy of the Divine Image…But the shadow of God is his Word which he used like an instrument when he was making the world. And this shadow, and, as it were, model, is the archetype of other things…” We can also note the similarity to Carl Jung’s archetypes within the collective unconscious.

“The musician is very close to mysticism, far closer than the philosopher…because music is meaningful without any words; it is meaningful simply because it rings some bells in your heart..creates a synchronicity between you and itself, when your heart starts resonating in the same way, when you start pulsating in the same way.”
Osho, Philosophia Ultima


There are known quantitative frequencies that have been measured that illustrate the body and energy connections with comparative measurements to the world around us:

^ = means to the power of 10^-8, 10 the minus 8 power

Gamma Rays 10^18 to 10^26hz
X rays 10^16 to 10^20hz
Ultraviolet Light (UV) 10^15 to 10^17hz
Visible Light 10^4.7 to 10^15hz
Infrared Rays 10^11 to 10^4.7hz
Radar Waves 10^9.5 to 10^11.5hz
Microwaves 10^8 to 10^9.5hz
Television Waves 10^6 to 10^8hz
Radio Waves 10^1to 10^6.5hz
Elf Waves 10^1hz

Earths Ionosphere Cavity Resonance – Schuman Field ranges from 1 Hz to 30 Hz – Radiation Spectrum 

Audio20 20,000 Hz
Ultrasonic 20,000 Hz – 100-kHz – 10 MHz
Radiofrequency 150KHz-1.5 MHz
High Radio Frequency RF 1.5MHz-40 MHz
Very High Radio Frequency VHF 40MHz-100MHz
Ultrahigh Radio Frequency UH over 100MHz



Alpha 8-13 cycles/sec – relaxed alert
Beta 14-30 -intense mental concentration, agitation
Theta 4-7 Hypnogogic
Delta 5-3.5 Sleeping

Human Tolerances to sinusodal vibration

Head Pain 13-30Hz
Impaired Speech 13-20Hz
Jaw Pain 6-8Hz
Chest Pain 5-7Hz
Abdominal Pain 4.5 – 10 Hz
Human Body Cell 1,520,000 to 9,460,000 Hz
Upper Limit of Human Hearing 15,000 Hz

Molds, viruses, bacteria, worms, mites range from 77 KHz to 900KHz

Warts 400-430Kz
Tapeworms 420-450Khz
Mites 640KHz – 850KHz
Ant 1000 to 1200KHz
Goldfish 900 to 1500Khz
Chameleon 1000 to 6000KHz
Cat 1500 to 8000Khz

“Biological systems are influenced by the terrestrial electrical environment. This environment includes electric fields, magnetic fields, field modulations, and aerion(positive and negative) concentrations, and biological waves. Nature ordains harmonious variations of these factors. The human organism exhibits revealing electrical characteristics.

“Electromagnetic brain waves (0.1 to 30hz) occur at frequencies paralleling those of terrestrial sferics and the Schuman resonance. Decision making abilities are subordinate to alpha, beta, gamma(.01-5hz), theta(4 – 7hz), and delta(0.1-4hz) brain rhythms with their related states of consciousness.”
Symposium on Biological Effects and Measurement of Biofrequency/Microwaves, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, FDA – Critical Aspects of Human Versus Terrestrial Electromagnetic Symbiosis, E. Stanton Maxey, M.D. , 1977


As we have learned thus far, all life, coexisting together at the same time, is both matter and space: movement and stillness, sound and silence, light and darkness. As we have seen earlier, the wave/particle duality (Non-Locality) means that everything is joined or connected together. This duality also means that objects that appear to have seemingly opposite properties are of the same substance but in a different form or density of a vibrational level.

It is believed that Earth is deemed as a “free will zone”. There is an ongoing battle between the positive and negative forces, the dark vs. light. Scientifically speaking, there is no difference, just differences in frequencies and amplitudes. Simply speaking, we are all one.

“light and shade, long and short, black and white, can only be experienced in relation to each other; light is not independent of shade, nor black of white. There are no opposites, only relationships.”
Lankavatara Sutra From “Buddha Speaks”
Anne Bancroft 2000

Another example of this polarity principle is found in sound harmonics. Fields may be enharmonic on one level but harmonic on different levels. Enharmonic would be like plucking a guitar string and allowing it to vibrate freely. The sound and the frequencies of the corresponding vibration are no longer exactly in the same frequency ratio. Harmonics, is the vibration multiples of the same frequency.

The Taoists also viewed the dynamic interplay between the polar opposites as yin and yang. This pair of opposites shares a polar relationship where the two poles are dynamically linked to the other and found throughout nature.

This idea of implicit unity of all opposites can be extremely difficult to accept. However paradoxical it may seem to some, Eastern philosophies have always been considered this as essential for attaining enlightenment to go ‘beyond earthly opposites,’ and in China the polar relationship of all opposites lies at the very basis of Taoist thought. In the Tao of Physics, “Thus Chuang Tzu says, The “this” is also “that.” The “that” is also “this.” . . . That the “that” and the “this” cease to be opposites is the very essence of Tao. Only this essence, an axis as it were, is the center of the circle responding to the endless changes.”

This ancient wisdom of duality is the essence of the Tao. It also appears to be the essence of physics.

“Every explicit duality is an implicit unity.”
Alan Watts

Heraclitus the Greek philosopher also realized that all opposites have a unity and relativity. “The way up and down is one and the same,” and “God is day night, winter summer, war peace, satiety hunger.”

Science and religion also represent a complimentary pair of polar opposites residing within a highly complex paradox. If we view these opposites as the ends of the light spectrum, we have a diverse range of human culture and ideals. These cultural dimensions in this range quantify the ideal of “unity of diversity”, biologically, ecologically and sociologically. In “The Wisdom of Thich Nhat Hanh”, he eloquently says, “Realizing the interdependent nature of dust, flowers, humans, we see that unity cannot exist without diversity. Unity and diversity interpenetrate each other fully.”

The full magnitude of the paradox disappears in the light of diverse duality.

“Life starts with the knowledge of diversity, but the awareness of unity is the pinnacle of life.”
Hazrat Inayat Khan

The Kybalion:

The Kybalion encompasses the study of “The Hermetic Philosophy of Ancient Egypt and Greece”. This is considered as the life work of Hermes Trismegistus who was considered to be the “scribe of the gods”. This Greco-Egyptian philosopher and mathematician reportedly had written tens of thousands of volumes of books revealing to humankind the healing arts, magic, writing, astrology, science, chemistry and philosophy. This was a time of unity between the scientific and religious studies.

Hermes also built several pyramids and reportedly even taught the great mathematician Pythagoras. Oddly enough, Hermes is considered the “Great Central Sun of Occultism”. Perhaps Hermes was the living embodiment of duality as he inscribed some of the earliest accounts of the secret of the ultimate reconciliation between the meta-physical science and religion. His wisdom follows in excerpts from the Kybalion. The parallels to “modern” thinking are astounding.

“Everything is Dual; everything has poles; everything has its pair of opposites; like and unlike are the same; opposites are identical in nature, but different in degree; extremes meet; all truths are but half-truths; all paradoxes may be reconciled.”

“The same Principle manifests in the case of “Light and Darkness,” which are the same thing, the difference consisting of varying degrees between the two poles of the phenomena”

“The “Art of Polarization becomes a phase of “Mental Alchemy” known and practiced by the ancient and modern Hermetic Masters. An understanding of the Principle will enable one to change his own Polarity, as well as that of others, if he will devote the time and study necessary to master the art.”

“The teachers claim that illustrations of this Principle may be had on every hand, and from an examination into the real nature of anything. They begin by showing that Spirit and Matter are but the two poles of the same thing, the intermediate planes being merely degrees of vibration. They show that THE ALL and The Many are the same, the difference being merely a matter of degree of Mental Manifestation.”

By looking carefully at the nature of opposites, we might realize that each pole actually incorporates its opposite, in one form or another – as an essential component of the whole.

“To understand the whole it is necessary to understand the parts. To understand the parts, it is necessary to understand the whole. Such is the circle of understanding.” - Ken Wilber, Eye of Spirit

“We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make our world.” - Buddha

Thought is a great dynamic force with tremendous power. A simple atom radiates an electromagnetic field or EMF. A molecule radiates yet a stronger electromagnetic field. A large number of molecules form a cell in which the human brain contains at least 200 million such cells. These atomic waves seem to include the emotions and are thought to be superimposed within the EMF frequencies. These vibrations are sent out into the physical world extending outward into the “non-physical” world. The historian Arthur Koestler refers to this as the capacity of the human psyche to “act as a cosmic resonator”. Thoughts paired with Intent equals a very powerful mixture of “mental stuff”.

Thoughts and emotions happen as a result of you interactions with the world based on your perception of past experiences. It how you perceive this world of events that form our thought processes that becomes reactions and behaviors, unconsciously or consciously. Our thoughts create our feelings, emotions, behavior and what is attracted and magnetized into your life.

In minding your thoughts, there is also a Japanese principle known as the “Kototama Principle” meaning “word soul”. When one develops the right connection to language and words, this deep connection “becomes a ‘mirror’ against which one reflects his concerns in order to have a better sense of their nature, place, and relationship to a totality.” This “hidden” philosophy is just now re-emerging as our understanding how thought and feelings affect our realities.

Emotion is the fuel of creation…… “everything you dwell upon in your mind and heart, everything that you believe in, is drawn into physical manifestation. This is happening more and more quickly. As the masters have advised you for thousands of years”…

The very fabric of space/time that makes up the world is composed of threads and collectively we can, and we do, change and bend it to the will toward a love-centered reality. Love is not only an emotion, is also a genuine power in and of itself. The world is not set in “physical laws” or “immutable constants” it is ever changing, always fluctuating and we too change that with the tiniest thought.

“Thank goodness for feelings that create our emotions. Feeling and emotion are what will ignite your desire to know the love that is within you.” 
Alana, The Seven Sacred Steps

The Brain:

“The human brain being formed of an inestimable number of spherical resonators, termed in medical science nerve cells, forming the gray matter of the brain, these minute spheres take up the thought force which permeates all space in endless waves, eternally active. This force we term atomolic; the cells are composed of *atomoles, whose vibratory motions under the action of universal thought force result in the phenomena of thought, cognition, intellection, etc. Understanding this, no one should continue to feel surprise at the caring emotions and impulses of a human being in an undeveloped state, as only by developed WILL can the motions of this force be directed.”
(*Atomoles are elementary units of matter uniform in size and weight, and exist in solid, liquid, gaseous, and isolated forms. “Keely and His Discoveries” by John Ernst Worrell Keely)

A physics theory that was predicted in 1925, that resulted in the ever popular example of superconductivity in 1995, is The Bose- condensation.

This condensation is viewed as the most highly ordered structures in nature. This property is equivalent to a laser but the particles behave as a single particle and seem to possess a form of free will. The energies merge to become part of the whole. The Bose- condensate was later applied to living tissues and the results were astonishing for quantifying human consciousness.

In 1989 the British psychiatrist Ian Marshall, showed whenever the condensate in the brain is excited by an electrical field, conscious experience occurs. In his studies, the millions of neurons in the brain would maintain coherent thought processes, the neurons working as one structure. In other studies, it has also been determined by the encephalograph that all reasoning processes are actual waveform transmissions. Additionally, quantum wave function of the brain is not completely random and seems to have a “phase difference” which implies the parallels of mind and body to the duality of the wave and particle. The wave aspect of nature yields the mental; the particle aspect of nature yields the material.

Nobel Prize winner Ilya Prigione of the University of Texas is studying the “spontaneous formation of coherent structures,” how chemical and other kinds of structures evolve patterns out of chaos. Karl Pribram, a neuroscientist at Stanford University, has proposed that the brain may be a type of “hologram”. He theorizes the brain is a pattern and frequency analyzer which creates reality by interpreting frequencies from beyond space and time dimensions. On the basis of this model, the physical world “out there,” is, in Pribram’s words, “isomorphic with”–that, the same as, the processes of the brain.

Again, referencing to the physicist David Bohm, he writes, “in the deep structure of the brain. The new meaning will produce different thoughts, and therefore an entirely different function of the brain…As this changes, the whole universe changes.”

“Our destiny changes with our thought; we shall become what we wish to become, do what we wish to do,when our habitual thought corresponds with our desire.”
Orison S. Marder

In a New York Times article dated April 26th, 2003, Tenzin Gyatso of Dharamsala, India, wrote a column about his recent investigation of emotions and behavior. This being a recent publication of the science of the emotions and the mind in Buddhism, in which many such similar scientific studies have been done.

“It is for this reason that I visited the neuroscience laboratory of Dr. Richard Davidson at the University of Wisconsin. Using imaging devices that show what occurs in the brain during meditation, Dr. Davidson has been able to study the effects of Buddhist practices for cultivating compassion, equanimity or mindfulness. For centuries Buddhists have believed that pursuing such practices seems to make people calmer, happier and more loving. At the same time they are less and less prone to destructive emotions.

Dr. Davidson tells me that the emergence of positive emotions may be due to this: Mindfulness meditation strengthens the neurological circuits that calm a part of the brain that acts as a trigger for fear and anger. This raises the possibility that we have a way to create a kind of buffer between the brain’s violent impulses and our actions.

Dr. Davidson using electroencephalographs to measure brain waves. According to Dr. Davidson, the abbot had the highest amount of activity in the brain centers associated with positive emotions that had ever been measured by his laboratory. After eight weeks, Dr. Davidson found that in these people, the parts of their brains that help to form positive emotions became increasingly active.

But reflection shows that in our lives much of our suffering is caused not by external causes but by such internal events as the arising of disturbing emotions. The best antidote to this disruption is enhancing our ability to handle these emotions.”


We have all heard that laughter is the best medicine. The emotions that come from humor and laughter help people cope better with the stress of daily life. Studies have shown that people who laugh often live longer and are much healthier compared to those that find it difficult to laugh due to life’s circumstances and personality types. This common reflex affects the body by activating the cardiovascular system, helps lower blood pressure and also exercises the muscles of the body. Research has shown that parts of the limbic system are involved in laughter as well. The limbic system is a primitive part of the brain that is involved in emotions and helps us with basic functions necessary for survival.

Dr. Lee S. Berk, at Loma Linda University School of Medicine and Public Health in California, and endocrinologist Stanley Tan, studied various groups of adults and found that laughter also stimulates our endocrine system and the pituitary gland, which in turn, stimulates release of endorphins and enkephalins, natural painkillers that are chemical cousins to opiates such as morphine and heroin. They found that both arms of the immune system got a boost out of laughter. Other studies have shown laughter improved functioning in those with breast cancer, marital stress and also those in the grieving process.

Silvia Cardoso, a behavioral biologist reports, “Repeated short, strong contractions of the chest muscles, diaphragm and abdomen increase blood flow into our internal organs, and forced respiration–the ha! ha!–makes sure that this blood is well oxygenated. Muscle tension decreases, and indeed we may temporarily lose control of our limbs, as in the expression “weak with laughter”. It may also release brain endorphins, reducing sensitivity to pain and boosting endurance and pleasurable sensations. Some studies suggest that laughter affects the immune system by reducing the production of hormones associated with stress, and that when you laugh the immune system produces more T-cells.”

Recent surveys indicate that laughter can enhance the quality of our conversations and productivity and social interactions. It simply makes people feel closer to each other. In his book, “Laughter: A Scientific Investigation”, Provine says “that laughter is the oil in the social machine, helping human interactions run more smoothly”.

Laughter sounds also have on emotional responses in listeners. Recent studies “support the notion that one important function of laugh acoustics is to influence the emotional responses of listeners,” the researchers from the Acoustic Society of America meeting conclude.

I had stated in the Frequency and Sound portion of this site, “The universe consists solely of waves of motion…There exists nothing other than vibration.” relates Walter Russell in “A New Concept of the Universe”.

In vibratory physics, the principles that make sound into harmonious music are the same principles that govern all associating vibrations throughout the universe – and that includes everything that there is. Vibrations are dynamic things not unlike “living” things since they are in a mutual state of “harmony”.


“David Bohm summarizes M=E=I formula (matter = energy = information) when he writes: ‘there is a limitless amount of information enfolded into the structure of the universe and we are a manifestation of that energy. Every body event, whether the workings of enzymes, neuropeptides, hormones, blood, or skin, is an info-energetic event.’”

“Science has discovered startling new possibilities regarding how we think, feel, love, heal and find meaning in our life…research suggests that the heart thinks, cells remember and that both of these processes are related to an as yet mysterious, extremely powerful, but very subtle energy. Science may be taking the first steps to understanding more about the ancient shamans/healers/leaders – the energy of the human spirit and the coded information that is the human soul.” (Pearsall 1998).

Many cardiologists have combined their knowledge of biology and new physics – the study of subtle energy and the invisible atomic world and modern cardiology. Energy cardiology is based on the “dynamic systems memory theory”, the idea that all systems are constantly exchanging mutually influential energy, which contains information that alters the systems taking part in the exchange. In another section of my web site I wrote, “Our billions of heart cells are able to form a quantum energy generator…by laws of the quantum world such as nonlocality…the info-energetic connection that constitutes all systems in the Universe.”


Another field, Kinesiology, has made strides in determining feelings and emotions on the well-being of the body. David R. Hawkins, MD, PhD. conducted a 29 year study that demonstrated the human body becomes stronger or weaker depending on a person’s mental state using kinesiology, or muscle testing. Dr. Hawkins developed a scale of 1-1000 that maps human consciousness: 200 (or 20,000 cycles per second) weakens the body and from 200 to 1000 makes the body stronger. At various points above this are intellect, psychology, science, genius, heart and enlightenment which move us from duality to non-duality. This Map of Consciousness is based on a logarithmic scale which means there is an enormous increase in power with even a small increase in the number on the scale.

The lowest vibration rate is described as “Force”. This exhibits a weak kinesiologic response with a vibration under 200 which includes shame, then guilt, apathy, grief, fear and anxiety, craving, anger and hate. All these feelings weaken you. Levels at 200 and above are described as “Power,” which elicit a strong kinesiologic response. At 250 you have neutrality and trust – this strengthens you.

Going up on the scale there is: willingness, optimism, acceptance and forgiveness, reason and understanding, love and reverence, joy and serenity.

Courage calibrates at 200 
Willingness calibrates at 310
Reason calibrates at 400 
Unconditional Love calibrates at 500
Joy, and the ability to communicate healing energies to another calibrates at 540
Gratitude calibrates at 560
Praise at 570
Peace and bliss is rated at 600
Enlightenment and Ineffability at 700-1000.

Dr. Hawkins conjectures the great scientists such as Newton and Freud calibrate at 499 and Carl Jung calibrates at 540, the highest level of the intellect we have known to this point.

At the highest end of the kinesiological scale of human experience, 600 to 1000, are qualities that transcend duality. This is the level of “enlightenment” and “pure bliss” of consciousness.

The highest calibration in this study was 700 by Mother Theresa who exuded peace and joy by her mere presence. Dr. Hawkins reports that Jesus, Krishna, Buddha, the greatest prophets recorded in human history all calibrate at a scale at 1000 along with their messages of Unity, Peace and Love calibrated near 1000.

Cycles Conversion of Hawkin’s scale illustrate:

Hawkin’s Scale
Cycles P/Second = Hz
kHz or kc/s

Please reference the section on Frequency which has a listing of comparative measurements

The frequency from light, sound, to physiological functions (as demonstrated in the Frequency section) along with bio-scientific studies show definite resonances in all things and ultimately shows the dual nature of our physical being and how we are energetically linked to everything else.

“Energy waves build the human body by radiation in intrauterine life, as a pattern of energy currents, and continue to maintain it by this energy flow as wireless currents.” 
Dr. Randolph Stone -Polarity Therapy Book 1


To “feel” combines our emotions merged with our thoughts and hence energy follows attention. When we pray we realize and acknowledge there are many possibilities and by the act of praying-focusing-feeling, we direct that energy into an opportunity that we *choose* to experience – of all the possibilities available.

A Tibetan Abbott said on prayer, “Feeling – the object of each prayer is to achieve “feeling”. When we pray, we feel on behalf of all beings, everywhere. We are all connected. We are all expressions of one life. No matter where we are, our prayers are heard by all. We are all the same one.”

“Unless you, yourself, enter the image and think from it, it is incapable of birth.”

Gregg Braden and others have spoken about the power of prayer and the physics principles at work. “Through the language of time waves, quantum outcomes, and choice points…” we determine our future probabilities. “Our individual choices merge into our collective response to the present” whose rings span far into the depths of time/space.”

The matrix grid of consciousness, Jung’s collective unconscious, is the nervous system for the earth, our thoughts effect this system and everything contained therein.

The universe can be crafted with a simple working of your will. Mages and mystics and shamanic healers have taught this truth throughout the ages. Thoughts and feelings manifest itself into reality. This makes us co-creators with the universe. Quantum physics even suggest that by redirecting our focus and our attention we can bring about about a new course of events.

“Everything we think, feel, and do has an effect on our ancestors and all future generations and reverberates throughout the universe.”
Thich Nhat Hanh

A tiny emotion becomes a thought of a one raindrop, thousands of drops turn into a flood. There is true magic-alchemy in the power of will, we shape the world by our desires, thoughts, intents and actions. So in relation to mankind’s “ascension” it is the product of many working, thinking, acting, and living as a higher unit of collective thought energy processes.

In Kabalistic teachings there is a saying, “think well of everyone”. In Kabbalah, what we do in this world always has effects in the spiritual dimension. There is also the term “cycle of reciprocity”: what is going out from your mind is always coming back to you.

Dhyani Ywahoo, a Cherokee spiritual teacher, says it beautifully: “Be aware of the power of mind, remember that we are all in process of unfolding. We can choose, we can weave; we hold the form, we dance it, and the moment comes when it is recalled in each of us…By the power of its sound it is a reality…The Beauty Path, the Great Peace, is the meeting of ourselves, the perceptions of our minds, and the cessation of those waves and thought forms that create discord. Let us sow the seed of peace in all our actions, thoughts and words.”

The Spiritual Path assists “mortal man in gaining and understanding of his/her place within the Divine Order and allows mankind to experience the greater purpose of evolution from a more Universal perspective.”

“When mankind perceives reality through an open, evolved heart chakra, mortal man experiences reality by “feeling” the energy states of that reality.” We can safely say that real truths cannot be said, talked about or even written, they must be lived, experienced and felt.”

“Remember to be cautious with your thoughts and your words; they are the tools of creation.
Remember cause and effect.
Remember there is nothing more important than love.”
(Mary Sparrowdancer – “The Love Song of The Universe”)

Energy as Consciousness in Science

Consciousness is not always a favorite topic of scientists and other thinkers in that it is hard to define.  The dictionary includes awareness and a state of being awake.  For our purposes, a more comprehensive definition is, “the totality of a person’s thoughts and feelings.”  Note that this would include emotion, thinking, and physical bodily reactions.

On the one hand, one needs to distinguish between Consciousness (the apparently unique quality of humans being aware — “I think, therefore I am”), a transcendent mind (which has no physical basis and may be construed as the Consciousness vehicle without portfolio — or physical reality), a mechanistic brain (which depends upon electrochemical interactions), and the body (the physical presence we normally associate with a reality which includes matter — the latter the “stuff” of the physical universe).  Quantum physics has, for example, demonstrated the links between Consciousness and Physics – and also shed enormous light on Mind-Body discussions, as well as Mind-Matter interactions. (6/1/05) There is also what might be termed a Christ Consciousness, or the ultimate in Intermingled Realities.

The French philosopher Michel Foucalut once claimed, “All modern  thought is permeated by the idea of thinking the unthinkable.”  Perkins has said: “Some physicists even think there might be bizarre links between gravity, the weird properties of the quantum world, and that most enduring of human mysteries — consciousness.” [1]  Well, yeah!  Duh!  

Unfortunately, Consciousness Research has been largely ignored by the physical sciences.  This is despite an array of encounters in modern physics which keep alluding to consciousness, but which manage in some way to avoid ever calling it by name.

For example, there is the fundamental problem of an observer affecting a measurement by the simple act of taking the measurement — as embodied in Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle (and in accordance with its varied interpretations). Moreover, the attitude of the observer, or even the ability of the observer to see a result (i.e. not being blinded by an overriding, contrary Paradigms), can make a profound difference in the outcome of an intended or accidental experiment. Essentially, what we cannot imagine, we cannot see.

Another problem arises from Maxwell’s Demon, the devilish mental concept which forced physics to elevate information up to the same level of importance and impact as energy when dealing with the Laws of Thermodynamics and reversing the direction of Entropy.  Information is about Communication, the transmission of knowledge, intelligence, even enlightenment.  In this context (Maxwell’s Demon, et al) information constitutes: a means by which an unordered structure can become ordered (i.e. Entropy reversed).

In physics, this was acknowledged by identifying information as a form of energy.  However, not to have taken the immediate, logical route of calling the solution to the enigma posed by Maxwell’s Demon a form of consciousness (instead of the more benign word, information), is one of the more fascinating examples of the blind leading the blind in the practice of physics.

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Knowing have contributed to the information link to experimental results, and in fact, created the unique and demonstrable “proof” that observation (the access to information) changes the results of experiment.  This is the stuff of Creating Reality, creating matter or events by simply acquiring information, by simply observing what is transpiring.

There is no way to overemphasize the importance of modern quantum physics and its impact upon our understanding of a transcendental mind with consciousness.

Consciousness can be described as taking unconnected and chaotic properties or bits of data and correlating them into an ordered structure or schema.  Consciousness is thus anti-entropic to the extent of individual systems within the universe being anti-entropic, and both information and consciousness begin to take on some of the same properties with regard to physics.  Both information and consciousness become forms of energy.

Consciousness may require the transformation of more traditional forms of energy in order to accomplish consciousness’ ability to correlate — to be anti-entropic.  However, the physics of The Fifth ElementZero-Point Energy, and so forth — as well as countless traditions and philosophical understandings from the beginning of recorded history — have concluded that there exists an energetic connection between all aspects of the universe.  Thus the energy requirements — which utilize means outside the pathways currently prescribed by mainstream science — become irrelevant among systems within the universe.

Furthermore, the basic objection to any supposed violation of the Law of Conservation of Energy (i.e. the “second law” in the Laws of Thermodynamics) is incorrect because the law is only valid with regard to a closed system.  Because of the energetic connection between all aspects of the universe, there are no closed systems within this universe, and only the universe may be regarded as a closed system.  (Of course, if there are Multiple Universes, even this proviso may not be strictly obeyed.  Sorry about that.)

Arthur Young has referred to the third derivative — equivalent to The Fifth Element’s third derivative term — as “control”, and in doing so implied that consciousness is the underlying aspect of the added term in the equations of physics.  But why should this term leap from a simply description of a small aspect of physics to that of consciousness?

Arthur Young tried to answer this by likening the situation to the case where all machines ultimately require a form of control.  Such a control is intentional, and is based on the physical distinction between accelerating and causing acceleration.

The position of something, or even the fact that an object is in motion, or is changing its motion, is not a matter which requires choice.  These are deterministic in that they follow the natural laws of science.  They just are.  It’s here, it’s moving, it’s moving under the influence of gravity, and that’s about it.  There is no further need for action, for initiating a change for some purpose, or for redirecting the motion of an object.

Significantly, each of the three variables — position, velocity, and acceleration — all come under the purview of obeying the natural laws.  Any object anywhere in the universe is being influenced by the laws, and the only actions occurring due to these influences are changes in position and/or velocity.  There are no natural physical laws which induce a change in acceleration.  [Although there can be changes in the direction of acceleration.]

The third derivative, i.e. the rate of change of acceleration, is therefore outside the natural physical laws as we typically envision them.  There may be other deterministic physical laws which govern the third derivative, but these same meta-physical laws, these additions to what we now know as the laws of physics, appear to include choice, control, intent, and ultimately, consciousness.  In other words, there may be the Laws of Consciousness, but while we may have experienced them from our inception, we have yet to formulate them in the form of equations (equations often being the goal of mathematical physicists).

Consciousness — The Mother of All Connections

Fundamentally important with respect to the Connective Physics of The Fifth Element is the potential for a human consciousness to act as a “channel” for the universal energy flow.  On a more esoteric level, loving another human being may be simply the act of channeling the love of the universe through the lover and in the direction of the beloved.  The delightful part is that the love traversing the lover is also leaving the effects of its passage within the lover.  By the same token, hate would accomplish the same effect, but with less desirable results.  The relevant question is whether or not, all such channelings or passages of universal energy flow through the body, leave their effects as well.

Bruce Lee has been described <http://www.brucelee.com> as accomplishing astounding feats with the power of using his body to motivate others in an appropriate (Lee-selected) direction.  But there is also the very real possibility of his consciousness being a key element in the process — potentially even of far greater importance than his skill at practicing his own brand of martial arts!  The same can be said of karate or homeopathy. In effect, Bruce Lee may have been “channeling” energy, and moving it in a very specific direction, for a very specific purpose.

However, if Bruce Lee and other practitioners of the martial arts are simply channeling vast amounts of love, hate, power, and/or energy through their bodies, and in the process reaping a fair amount of residue/effect of the universal energy (in any of its myriad forms, both esoteric and exoteric, good and bad), an essential requirement for the practitioner’s mind and body would be a conscious state conductive to the process and at the same time, one capable of utilizing the energies to advantage.

In something we might term the Bruce Lee Effect, there is the distinct possibility that too much energy flow for a given consciousness state or mental capacity might result in a situation where the body of the energy’s channeler suffers significantly.  Trying to channel even a healing energy through a body for the benefit of another might in some cases result in overpowering the capacity of the body of the healer to compensate.  Funneling love in large quantities is unlikely to cause any negative effects, inasmuch as the very nature of love would be, at the very least, to soften any possible negative effects, and in the more likely scenario, simply leave the lover awash in love (possibly a very desirable condition).

But other forms of energy, even when positive in their intent, could be overdoing an individual’s ability to “carry the current”, so to speak.  Just as too much current can overload a circuit (and burn it out), too much directed energy can burn out the circuits of the channeler through which the energy is flowing.  This may be the problem, for example, of anyone approaching the Ark of the Covenant who is not in resonance with it, who has not taken the ORME and prepared themselves (consciously and physically).  [See below.]

In the case of an energy flow with negative characteristics, the probability of negative results in the perpetrator’s mind and body quickly approaches unity (i.e. it’s guaranteed).  For example, hating someone intently — flowing universal hate energy through the body — is without question, deleterious to the hater (and maybe the hated).  A traditional tale tells of a person hating someone sufficiently intently that the initiator of the hate is likened to holding a hot coal in his or her hand, while waiting for the opportunity to throw it at the target of the person’s hate.  The moral of this situation is that the hater will end up with a very burned and damaged hand, while the hated may likely escape because of the bad aim of the already wounded hater, who when he or she finally lets the hot coal go in the approximate direction of the intended victim, misses.  Too bad.  [pardon the pun]

For those intrigued by the idea of channeling energy in any of its many forms, be advised that channeling negative energies is decidedly not a good idea.  This implies, of course, a prerequisite of a soul being able to discriminate between positive, negative, and negative-attempting-to-appear-positive energies.  However once the appropriately selected energy is determined, one can then begin a process of directing energies to others.

In this regard, there is unlikely to be any deleterious effects if one simply channels unconditional love and joy, without the slightest hint of attempting to infringe on another’s free will.  For those cases where a more active and focused intent is appropriate (perhaps in some cases of healing, for example), the channeler’s mind and body must be adequately prepared beforehand.  This might include meditation, prayer, or other mental preparations.

Physical preparations for channeling might include being fully hydrated.  Water in the body in maximum quantities appears essential in order to absorb without any ill effects, the fluctuating energies in both channeling and DNA changes. Dehydration, on the other hand, would likely cause major problems, because of the body’s inability to deal with the vibrational frequencies of any and all universal energies coursing through the body.  Water is an excellent buffer, when it comes to being sufficiently fluid for vibrational changes, and it needs to be present in the body in adequate quantities in order to do the work.

There is also the very noteworthy effects of attempting to channel ORME-related energy.  Traditionally, those without the proper attitude of “righteousness” have found themselves in deep do-do.  The best examples derive from the Bible, where in one case an innocent guard, seeing the Ark of the Covenant (the container for the ORME) about to capsize, reached out to prevent it, and promptly died from the effort.  While his goal might have been laudatory, his mental state was more likely that of anxiety or fear.  What was needed instead was for him to be in a mental/emotional state of righteousness before attempting to deal with the ORME or the Ark.  [See above. <g>]

An even more definitive example occurred when there was a concerted effort on the part of Moses’s people to assume some measure of control over the affairs of the wandering Hebrews.  Moses and Aaron had up until that time, been the only individuals with access to the Ark of the Convenant, and ultimately to the ORME.  This exclusivity might be construed as a Moses-style control-issue, or more likely, the understanding by Moses of the inadvisability of allowing anyone — perhaps without the essential prerequisites — to have access to the ORME, and thus to be able to channel an enormous amount of energy, with its attendant negative or positive effects.

When the members of the uprising demanded an opportunity to access the Ark, and after some resistance by Moses and Aaron, the latter two led the penitents into the presence of the Ark and its ORME contents.  At an appropriate moment, the two leaders ducked, and the crowd behind them was blasted into oblivion by some power impulse originating from the Ark — potentially a high voltage, discharging electromagnetic pulse.  Apparently, the crowd was not quite enlightened enough — a charge which can perhaps always be levied on virtually any crowd.  In effect, the Hebrews received an instantaneous introduction of the Bruce Lee Effect, even if they had no clue as to this future individual.  (There were very few movies, including preruns, in the Sinai in those days.)

A significant question is whether or not the channeling of energies can be accomplished with no negative impacts.  Better yet, how can extraordinary energies be channeled (inasmuch as we’re likely already channeling energy on a continuing and regular basis)?

In a word, Superconductivity.  Current flowing through a circuit causes the circuit to heat — a phenomena known as i2R heating (the current squared times the resistance).  In superconductivity, the resistance goes to zero, and thus there is noheating.  If there is no heating, there is no “burn out”, and thus no negative effects of channeling any amount of energy.  With “superconducting channeling”, therefore, one might be able to focus the energy without being attached to it (i.e. no resistance to its passage), and thus the channel accumulating no negative effects of the energy which is flowing through the body.  Obviously, the key is No Resistance!  And as has been said: “No pain; no resistance.”

How does one convert their thoughts to a “superconducting channeling” focus?  Allegedly the answer involves the ORMEStar FireORMUS, or the white powder of gold.  By taking what is known as Manna, the “What is it” of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, one may be able to achieve the ultimate in spiritual experiences — to be able to channel in a superconducting mode.  The ORME is reputed to facilitate the ability of the consumer to transform his or her electrons into positrons (particles of light), and thus to shift into a superconducting state.  In such a state, the ORME consumer can channel and reap the appropriate rewards, hopefully without burning up the circuitry (also known as the “brain”).  (Meditation is also a possibility, but likely a longer path.)

Then there was the orchestra leader, who upon being electrocuted in the electric chair, did not die — supposedly because he was a lousy conductor.  On the other hand, if he had been a “superconductor”, the current passing through his body might have had no effect, and he would have been unharmed as well — even if he had been a competent professional!

Is there, perhaps, another way?  (Other than to learn how to conduct music.)  If the ORME is unavailable, or for any number of reasons we encounter the situation wherein the “white powder of gold” has become a tool of  Dem Wid de Gold; is there somewhere else we can turn?

In the physics of The Fifth Element, the third derivative (akin to Arthur Young’s third derivative) is a term nearly identical in form to the Resistance term, but with a negative sign!  In effect, the third derivative term might be thought of as a negative resistance!  (And if resistance implies pain, imagine what negative resistance implies!)  With a negative resistance in the circuit, energy or current can flow with even greater ease than in the superconducting case.  The negative resistance actually contributes to propelling the flow through the circuit.  Therefore, an ability to utilize the third derivative in one’s thinking might be an improvement over even the ORME’s ability to facilitate channeling without over heating.  But how does one do that?

The critical aspect of the third derivative term is that it involves in the mechanical system, both mass, a time delay term, and a change in the rate of acceleration.  In the case of an electrical circuit — our preferred analogy — it involves inductance, a similar time delay term, and the acceleration of current.  Abrupt changes or impulses in the current, for example, increases the magnitude (given a constant inductance and time delay).

This may be analogous to being able to mentally construct a thought (in the form of a sharp, mental impulse) and then immediately lets it go!  It’s much like parking prosperity where one visualizes a convenient parking space near their destination, immediately lets it go (i.e. doesn’t worry or think about it after the quick visualization), and then easily finds the parking place upon arrival.  All of this is the concept of an abrupt, sudden, radical change in one’s paradigm, and afterwards, just as in the case of faults, not dwelling on them!  (The foregoing pun, incidentally, was intentional, inasmuch as it was an example of a sudden change in thinking or perspective – which is the basis of most positive humor, and possibly the basis of tapping into the equivalent of a superconducting state of mind.)

What is the analogy of the inductance?  Inductance is “the property of an electric circuit that causes an electromotive force to be generated by a change in the current flowing.”  On the one hand, force can be viewed as the means by which manifestation is accomplished.  The current might then be construed as the channeling of energy, while a change in the current is about the rapid pulsings of the energy (i.e. the vibrations and/or frequencies being transmitted).  Inductance might, therefore, be akin to righteousness!

With less religious overtones, Inductance might be equated to Intention.  Neither good nor bad intention, but simply intention.  Intention, in turn, might be increased with focus or attention to specifics.  If the purpose of meditation is to eliminate distracting thoughts, then perhaps meditation is an exercise in increasing one’s mental Inductance.  (The idea in meditation of eliminating all thoughts and concentrating on nothingness is, perhaps, an unfortunate misunderstanding.  It’s good for exercise purposes, but ultimately, the ability to focus may have been developed in order to focus on specific, action-oriented thoughts.)

In the third derivative term, there is also a time delay factor.  This term can be described in a mechanical system, as the time for the impulse force to reach the center of mass of the impacted object and return to the point of impact.  I.e. the larger the object impacted, the larger the time delay (assuming the same rate of propagation of the information or impulse in the object).  In an electrical circuit it’s the dimension of the circuit, i.e. the length of a coil, for example.  In diminutive systems, the time delay factor might be viewed as quite small and even approaching zero (thus the third derivative term also tending toward zero).

However, if the extent of the “circuitry” is based upon the extent to which the system is tapping into the more distant reaches of the universe, then the time delay portion of the third derivative term becomes ever more significant.  This might correspond to the degree in which we embrace all of existence — or at the very least, something extending beyond the immediate concerns of the up close and personal concerns of the individual ego.  The latter might be something termed, Expassion (i.e. an external compassion for all things outside of the ego).  The more one is reaching out and feeling connected (as opposed to being a shell hermit), the more likely one has a very large circuit… or network!

It’s been said that the only viable Social Security is your friends — i.e. networks are good.  Alternatively, Social InSecurity has some really serious limitations.

Does the ORME assist in this endeavor?  Certainly from the viewpoint of eliminating distracting thoughts (i.e. staking a claim to the remnants or expecting commissions on the energy flow), the ORME might indeed be an equivalent means of increasing Inductance.  Inductance does, of course, sound very much like conductance, perhaps even a form of superconductance.  (And of course, “ductance” refers to the ability of duct tape to be used on anything that moves and shouldn’t — while grease is used for anything that doesn’t move and should.)  [I have no shame -- which is a good thing.]

All things are indeed connected, including theories.  I.e. the third derivative of The Fifth Element could be related in a straight-forward manner to Superconductivity and the ORME (as well as Consciousness).  Consider the following:

Inductance increased to Super-Inductance (Intention) and multiplied by the Expassion, times the frequency of the channeled energy equals the third derivative contribution.  In the ORME case, the contribution consists of the Superconductance times Righteousness times frequency of the channeled energy.  Pretty much the same thing.

But ancient traditions have known this all along.  Right?

Right.  So, what are your Intentions now in Creating Reality?  Think about it!

What is Consciousness?

The Problem of Consciousness

Conventional explanations portray consciousness as an emergent property of classical computer-like activities in the brain’s neural networks. The prevailing views among scientists in this camp are that 1) patterns of neural network activities correlate with mental states, 2) synchronous network oscillations in thalamus and cerebral cortex temporally bind information, and 3) consciousness emerges as a novel property of computational complexity among neurons.

However, these approaches appear to fall short in fully explaining certain enigmatic features of consciousness, such as:

  • The nature of subjective experience, or ‘qualia’- our ‘inner life’ (Chalmers’ “hard problem”);
  • Binding of spatially distributed brain activities into unitary objects in vision, and a coherent sense of self, or ‘oneness’;
  • Transition from pre-conscious processes to consciousness itself;
  • Non-computability, or the notion that consciousness involves a factor which is neither random, nor algorithmic, and that consciousness cannot be simulated (Penrose, 1989, 1994, 1997);
  • Free will; and,
  • Subjective time flow.

Brain imaging technologies demonstrate anatomical location of activities which appear to correlate with consciousness, but which may not be directly responsible for consciousness.

Figure 1. PET scan image of brain showing visual and auditory recognition (from S Petersen, Neuroimaging Laboratory, Washington University, St. Louis. Also see J.A. Hobson “Consciousness,” Scientific American Library, 1999, p. 65).

Figure 2. Electrophysiological correlates of consciousness.

How do neural firings lead to thoughts and feelings? The conventional (a.k.a. functionalist, reductionist, materialist, physicalist, computationalist) approach argues that neurons and their chemical synapses are the fundamental units of information in the brain, and that conscious experience emerges when a critical level of complexity is reached in the brain’s neural networks.

The basic idea is that the mind is a computer functioning in the brain (brain = mind = computer). However in fitting the brain to a computational view, such explanations omit incompatible neurophysiological details:

  • Widespread apparent randomness at all levels of neural processes (is it really noise, or underlying levels of complexity?);
  • Glial cells (which account for some 80% of brain);
  • Dendritic-dendritic processing;
  • Electrotonic gap junctions;
  • Cytoplasmic/cytoskeletal activities; and,
  • Living state (the brain is alive!)

A further difficulty is the absence of testable hypotheses in emergence theory. No threshold or rationale is specified; rather, consciousness “just happens”.

Finally, the complexity of individual neurons and synapses is not accounted for in such arguments. Since many forms of motile single-celled organisms lacking neurons or synapses are able to swim, find food, learn, and multiply through the use of their internal cytoskeleton, can they be considered more advanced than neurons?

Figure 3. Single cell paramecium can swim and avoid obstacles using its cytoskeleton.

Are neurons merely simple switches?

2. Microtubules

Activities within cells ranging from single-celled organisms to the brain’s neurons are organized by a dynamic scaffolding called the cytoskeleton, whose major components are microtubules. Hollow, crystalline cylinders 25 nanometers in diameter, microtubules are comprised of hexagonal lattices of proteins, known as tubulin. Microtubules are essential to cell shape, function, movement, and division. In neurons microtubules self-assemble to extend axons and dendrites and form synaptic connections, then help to maintain and regulate synaptic activity responsible for learning and cognitive functions. Microtubules interact with membrane structures mechanically by linking proteins, chemically by ions and “second-messenger” signals, and electrically by voltage fields.

Figure 4. Schematic view of two neurons connected by chemical synapse. Axon terminal (above) releases neurotransmitter vesicles which bind receptors on post-synaptic dendritic spine. Within neurons are visible cytoskeletal structures microtubules (“MTs” – thicker tubes) as well as actin, synapsin and others which connect MTs to membranes. Also, MT-associated proteins (“MAPs”) interconnect MTs.

Figure 5. Immunoelectron micrograph of dendritic microtubules interconnected by MAPs. Some MTs have been sheared, revealing internal hollow core. The granular “corn-cob” surface of MTs is barely evident to close inspection. Scale bar, lower left: 100 nanometers. With permission from Hirokawa, 1991.

Figure 6. Crystallographic structure of microtubules.

While microtubules have traditionally been considered as purely structural elements, recent evidence has revealed that mechanical signaling and communication functions also exist:

  • MT “kinks” travel at 15 microns (2000 tubulin subunits) per second. Vernon and Woolley (1995) Experimental Cell Research 220(2)482-494
  • MTs vibrate (100-650 Hz) with nanometer displacement. Yagi, Kamimura, Kaniya (1994) Cell motility and the cytoskeleton 29:177-185
  • MTs optically “shimmer” when metabolically active. Hunt and Stebbings (1994), Cell motility and the cytoskeleton 17:69-78
  • Mechanical signals propogate through microtubules to cell nucleus; mechanism for MT regulation of gene expression. Maniotis, Chen and Ingber (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:849-854
  • Measured tubulin dipoles and MT conductivity suggest MTs are ferroelectric at physiological temperature (Tuszynski; Unger 1998)

Current models propose that tubulins within microtubules undergo coherent excitation, switching between two or more conformational states in nanoseconds. Dipole couplings among neighboring tubulins in the microtubule lattice form dynamical patterns, or “automata,” which evolve, interact and lead to the emergence of new patterns. Research indicates that microtubule automata computation could support classical information processing, transmission and learning within neurons.

Figure 7. Left: Microtubule (MT) structure: a hollow tube of 25 nanometers diameter, consisting of 13 columns of tubulin dimers arranged in a skewed hexagonal lattice (Penrose, 1994). Right (top): Each tubulin molecule may switch between two (or more) conformations, coupled to London forces in a hydrophobic pocket. Right (bottom): Each tubulin can also exist (it is proposed) in quantum superposition of both conformational states.

Figure 8. Microtubule automaton simulation (from Rasmussen et al., 1990). Eight nanosecond time steps of a segment of one microtubule are shown in “classical computing” mode in which conformational states of tubulins are determined by dipole-dipole coupling between each tubulin and its six (asymmetrical) lattice neighbors. Conformational states form patterns which move, evolve, interact and lead to emergence of new patterns.

Microtubule automata switching offers a potentially vast increase in the computational capacity of the brain. Conventional approaches focus on synaptic switching at the neural level which optimally yields about 1018 operations per second in human brains (~1011 neurons/brain with ~104 synapses/neuron, switching at ~103 sec-1). Microtubule automata switching can explain some 1027 operations per second (~1011 neurons with ~107 tubulins/neuron, switching at ~109sec-1). Indeed, the fact that all biological cells typically contain approximately 107 tubulins could account for the adaptive behaviors of single-celled organisms which have no nervous system or synapses. Rather than simple switches, neurons are complex computers.

3. Pan-experiential philosophy meets modern physics

Still, greater computational complexity and ultra-reductionism to the level of microtubule automata cannot address the enigmatic features of consciousness, in particular the nature of conscious experience. Something more is required. If functional approaches and emergence are incomplete, perhaps the raw components of mental processes (qualia) are fundamental properties of nature (like mass, spin or charge). This view has long been held by pan-psychists throughout the ages, for example Buddhists and Eastern philosophers claim a “universal mind.” Following the ancient Greeks, Spinoza argued in the 17th century that some form of consciousness existed in everything physical. The 19th century mathematician Leibniz proposed that the universe was composed of an infinite number of fundamental units, or “monads,” with each possessing a form of primitive psychological being. In the 20th century, Russell claimed that there was a common entity underlying both mental and physical processes, while Wheeler and Chalmers have maintained that there exists an experiential aspect to fundamental information.

Of particular interest is the work of the 20th century philosopher Alfred North Whitehead, whose pan-experiential view remains most consistent with modern physics. Whitehead argued that consciousness is a process of events occurring in a wide, basic field of proto-conscious experience. These events, or “occasions of experience,” may be comparable to quantum state reductions, or actual events in physical reality (Shimony, 1993). This suggests that consciousness may involve quantum state reductions (e.g. a form of quantum computation).

But what of Whitehead’s basic field of proto-conscious experience? In what medium are the “occasions of experience” (?quantum state reductions) occurring? Could proto-conscious qualia simply exist in the empty space of the universe?

What is empty space? Historically, empty space has been described as either an absolute void or a pattern of fundamental geometry. Democritus and the Michaelson-Morley results argued for “nothingness” while Aristotle (“plenum”) and Maxwell (“ether”) rejected the notion of emptiness in favor of “something” – a background pattern. Einstein weighed in on both sides of this debate, initially supporting the concept of a void with his theory of special relativity but then reversing himself in his theory of general relativity and its curved space and geometric distortions-the space-time metric. Could proto-conscious qualia be properties of the metric, fundamental space-time geometry?

What is fundamental space-time geometry? We know that at extremely small scales, space-time is not smooth, but quantized. Quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory predict virtual particle/waves (or photons) that pop into and out of existence, creating quantum “foam” in their wake. The presence of virtual photons in space-time has been verified (Lamoreaux, 1997).

Figure 9. Quantum electodynamics (QED) predicts a foam of erupting and collapsing virtual particles which may be visualized as topographic distortions of the fabric of spacetime. Adapted from Thorne (1994) by Dave Cantrell.

Figure 10. A: The Casimir force of the quantum vacuum zero point fluctuation energy may be measured by placing two macroscopic surfaces separated by a tiny gap d1. As some virtual photons are excluded in the gap, the net “quantum foam” pressure forces the surfaces together. In Lamoreaux’s (1997) experiment, d1 was in the range of 0.6 to 6.0 microns (~1500 nanometers). B: George Hall (1996; 1997) has calculated the Casimir force on microtubules. As the force is proportional to d-4, and d2 for microtubules is 15 nanometers, the predicted Casimir force is 106 greater on microtubules (per equivalent surface area) than that measured by Lamoreaux. Hall calculates a range of Casimir force on microtubules (length dependent) from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres.

At the basic level, this granularity has been modeled by Roger Penrose as a dynamic web of quantum spins. These “spin networks” create an array of geometric volumes and configurations at the Planck scale (10-33 cm, 10-43 secs) which dynamically evolve and define space-time geometry.

Figure 11. A spin network. Introduced by Roger Penrose (1971) as a quantum mechanical description of the geometry of space, spin networks describe spectra of discrete Planck scale volumes and configurations (with permission, Rovelli and Smolin, 1995).

If spin networks are the fundamental level of space-time geometry, they could provide the basis for proto-conscious experience. In other words, particular configurations of quantum spin geometry would convey particular types of qualia, meaning and aesthetic values. A process at the Planck scale (e.g. quantum state reductions) could access and select configurations of experience.

For illustration, 4 dimensional space-time geometry is often portrayed as a 2 dimensional “space-time sheet.”

Figure 12. According to Einstein’s general relativity, mass is equivalent to curvature in spacetime geometry. Penrose applies this equivalence to the fundamental Planck scale. The motion of an object between two conformational states of a protein such as tubulin (top) is equivalent to two curvatures in spacetime geometry as represented as a two-dimensional spacetime sheet (bottom).

4. Quantum computing and consciousness

If proto-conscious information is embedded at the near-infinitesimal Planck scale, how could it be linked to biology? To begin, Penrose extends Einstein’s theory of general relativity (in which mass equates to curvature in space-time) down to the Planck scale. As a result, specific arrangements of mass are, in reality, specific configurations of space-time geometry. Events at the very small scale, however, are subject to the seemingly bizarre goings-on of quantum theory.

A century of experimental observation of quantum systems have shown that, at least at small scales, particles (mass) can exist in two or more states or locations simultaneously (quantum superposition). Penrose takes superposition (e.g. a mass in two places simultaneously) to be simultaneous space-time curvature in opposite directions – a separation, or bubble (“blister”) in underlying reality.

Figure 13. Mass superposition, e.g. a protein occupying two different conformational states simultaneously (top) is equivalent, according to Penrose, to simultaneous spacetime curvature in opposite directions – a separation, or bubble (“blister”) in fundamental spacetime geometry.

Figure 14. Spacetime superposition/separation bubble (bottom) will reduce, or collapse to one or the other spacetime curvatures (top).

Superposition and subsequent reduction, or collapse, to single, classical states may have profoundly important applications in technology, as well as toward the understanding of consciousness. In the 1980s Benioff, Feynman, Deutsch and other physicists proposed that states in a quantum system could interact (via entanglement) and enact computation while in quantum superposition of all possible states (“quantum computing”). Classical computing processes bits (or conformational states) as 1 or 0, quantum computations involve the processing of superpositioned “qubits” of both 1 and 0 (and other states) simultaneously.

Figure 15. Qubits useful in quantum computation may exist in two or more (“both”) states simultaneously prior to collapse, or reduction (left), and then in single, classical (“either, or”) states after reduction (right). Spin, quantum dots and photon polarization qubits have been proposed and/or demonstrated in prototype quantum computers, and tubulin proteins and spacetime geometry are proposed in the Orch OR model to perform as qubits also.

Quantum theory also tells us that two or more particles, if once together, will remain somehow connected (“entangled”), even when separated by great distances. Qubits can interact by quantum entanglement, so that quantum computing is able to achieve a nearly infinite parallel computational ability. Quantum computers, if they can be constructed, will be able to solve imprtant problems (e.g. factoring large numbers) with efficiency unattainable in classical computers (Shor, 1994).

Researchers have developed a “Figure of Merit” M for proposed quantum computing technologies (Modified from Barenco, 1996 & DiVincenzo, 1995). M is related to the number of elementary operations performed per qubit before the superposition/computation is disrupted by decoherence (or in the case of microtubules in the Orch OR proposal, before objective reduction terminates the superposition).

Technology telem
M (operations/qubit
Mossbauer nucleus 10-19 10-10 109
Electrons GaAs 10-13 10-10 103
Electrons Au 10-14 10-8 106
Trapped ions 10-14 10-1 1013
Optical cavities 10-14 10-5 109
Electron spin 10-7 10-3 104
Electron quantum dots 10-6 10-3 103
Nuclear spin 10-3 104 107
Superconductor islands 10-9 103 106
Microtubule tubulins 10-9 10-1 108

Results, or solutions in quantum computing are obtained when, after a period of quantum superposition/computation, the qubits “collapse”, or reduce to classical bit states (“collapse of the wave function”). As quantum superposition may only occur in isolation from environment, collapse (reduction) may be induced by breaching isolation (this is what is envisioned in technological quantum computers – making a measurement). But what about quantum superpositions which remain isolated, for example Schrodinger’s mythical cat which is both dead and alive? This is the famous problem of collapse of the wave function, or quantum state reduction.

5. Roger Penrose’s ‘objective reduction’ OR

How or why do quantum superpositioned states which avoid environmental interactions become classical and definite in the macro-world? Many physicists now believe that some objective factor disturbs the superposition and causes it to collapse. Roger Penrose proposes that this factor is an intrinsic feature of space-time geometry itself – quantum gravity. According to Penrose’s interpretation of general relativity, quantum superposition (e.g. separation of mass from itself) is equivalent to separation in underlying space-time geometry-simultaneous space-time curvatures in opposite directions. Penrose argues that these separations in fundamental reality, (“bubbles, or blisters”) are unstable-even when isolated from the environment-and will reduce spontaneously (and non-computably) to specific states at a critical threshold of space-time separation (thereby avoiding the need for “multiple worlds”). This objective threshold is defined by the indeterminacy principle:

E = h/T

where E is the gravitational self-energy of the superposed mass separated from itself, h is Planck’s constant divided by 2pi, and T is the coherence time until collapse occurs. Thus, the size and energy of a system in superposition, or the degree of space-time separation, is inversely related to the time T until reduction. (E can be calculated from the superposed mass mand the separation distance a. See e.g. Hameroff and Penrose, 1996a.)

Assuming isolation, the following masses in superposition would collapse at the designated times, according to Penrose’s objective reduction:

Mass (m) Time (T)
Nucleon 107 years
Beryllium ion 106 years
Water Speck
10-5 cm radius Hours
10-4 cm radius 1/20 second
10-3 cm radius 10-3 seconds
Schrodinger’s cat (m=1kg, a=10 cm) 10-37 seconds

If quantum computation with objective reduction were occurring in the brain, enigmatic features of consciousness (see Section above – The Problem of Consciousness) could be explained:

  • By occurring as a self-organizing process in what is suggested to be a pan-experiential medium of fundamental spacetime geometry, objective reductions could account for the nature of subjective experience by accessing and selecting proto-conscious qualia.
  • By virtue of involvement of unitary (entangled) quantum states during pre-conscious quantum computation and the unity of quantum information selected in each objective reduction, the issue of binding may be resolved.
  • Regarding the transitions from pre-conscious processes to consciousness itself, the pre-conscious processes may equate to the quantum superposition/quantum computation phase, and consciousness itself to the actual (instantaneous) objective reduction events. Consciousness may then be seen as a sequence of discrete events (e.g. at 40 Hz).
  • As Penrose objective reductions are proposed to be non-computable (reflecting influences from space-time geometry which are neither random, nor algorithmic) conscious choices and understanding may be similarly non-computable.
  • Free will may be seen as a combination of deterministic pre-conscious processes acted on by a non-computable influence.
  • Subjective time flow derives from a sequence of irreversible quantum state reductions.

Could objective reduction be occurring in the brain? If so (from E = h/T) time T would be expected to coincide with known neurophysiological processes with time scales from tens to hundreds of milliseconds (e.g. 25 msec for coherent 40 Hz, 100 msec for alpha EEG, 500 msec for sensory threshold events such as Libet’s famous 1979 experiments). In what types of brain structures might quantum computation with objective reduction occur? For T in this range we can calculate (from E = h/T, and with E related to mass m as described in Hameroff and Penrose, 1996a) that superpositioned mass m in the nanogram range would be required for conscious events of 40 to 500 msec. What brain components in nanogram quantitites could support quantum computation and objective reduction? What is m?

6. Are proteins qubits?

Biological life is organized by proteins. By changing their conformational shape, proteins are able to perform a wide variety of functions, including muscle movement, molecular binding, enzyme catalysis, metabolism, and movement. Dynamical protein structure results from a “delicate balance among powerful countervailing forces” (Voet & Voet, 1995). The types of forces acting on proteins include charged interactions (such as covalent, ionic, electrostatic, and hydrogen bonds), hydrophobic interactions, and dipole interactions. The latter group, also known as van der Waals forces, encompasses three types of interactions:

  • permanent dipole – permanent dipole,
  • permanent dipole – induced dipole, and
  • induced dipole – induced dipole (London dispersion forces)

As charged interactions cancel out, hydrophobic and dipole – dipole forces are left to regulate protein structure. While induced dipole – induced dipole interactions, or London dispersion forces, are the weakest of the forces outlined above, they are also the most numerous and influential. Indeed, they may be critical to protein function. For example, anesthetics are able to bind in hydrophobic “pockets” of certain neural proteins and ablate consciousness by virtue of disrupting these London forces. London force attraction between any two atoms is usually less than a few kilojoules; however, since thousands occur in each protein, they add up to thousands of kilojoules per mole, and cause changes in conformational structure. As London forces are instrumental in protein folding (a problem intractable to conventional computational simulation), protein conformation and folding may be quantum computations.

Figure 16. A type of van der Waals force, the London dispersion force, is quantum mechanical and governs both protein conformation.

Figure 17. A. An anesthetic gas molecule (A) in a hydrophobic pocket of critical brain protein (receptors, channels, tubulin etc.) prevents normally occurring London forces, preventing protein conformational dynamics and superposition necessary for consciousness. B. A psychedelic hallucinogen (P) acts in hydrophobic pocket in critical brain protein to promote and sustain superposition, ‘expanding’ consciousness (see Figure 25).

Figure 18. A. Protein qubit. A protein such as tubulin can exist in two conformations determined by quantum London forces in hydrophobic pocket (top), or superposition of both conformations (bottom). B. The protein qubit corresponds to two alternative spacetime curvatures (top), and superposition/separation (bubble) of both curvatures (bottom).

If proteins are qubits, arrays or assemblies of proteins in some type of organelle or biomolecular structure could be a quantum computer. Ideal structures would be:

  • Abundant;
  • Capable of information processing and computation;
  • Functionally important (e.g., regulating synapses);
  • Self-organizing;
  • Tunable by input information (e.g., microtubule-associated protein orchestration);
  • Periodic and crystal-like in structure (e.g., dipole lattice);
  • Isolated (transiently) from environmental decoherence;
  • Conformationally coupled to quantum events (e.g., London forces);
  • Cylindrical wave-guide structure; and,
  • Plasma-like charge layer coating.

While various structures/organelles have been suggested (e.g., membrane proteins, clathrins, myelin, pre-synaptic grids, and calcium ions), the most logical candidates are microtubule automata.

Figure 19. The Penrose-Hameroff Orch OR model was hatched on a hike in the Grand Canyon following the Tucson I conference in April, 1994. From left: David Chalmers, Rhett Savage, Marie-Francoise Insinna, Seamus O’Morain, Stuart Hameroff, Roger Penrose, Vanessa Penrose, Jeff Tollaksen. Photo by Ezio Insinna.

7. Microtubule quantum automata – The ‘Orch OR’ model

The Penrose – Hameroff model of “orchestrated objective reduction” (Orch OR) proposes that:

  • Quantum superposition/computation occur in microtubule automata within brain neurons and glia.;
  • Tubulin subunits within microtubules act as qubits, switching between states on a nanosecond (10-9 sec) scale governed by quantum London forces in hydrophobic pockets;
  • Tubulin qubits interact computationally by nonlocal quantum entanglement according to the Schrodinger equation;

Figure 20. The basic idea in the Orch OR model is that each tubulin in a microtubule is a qubit.

Figure 21. Microtubule automaton sequence simulation in which classical computing (step 1) leads to emergence of quantum coherent superposition (steps 2-6) in certain (gray) tubulins due to pattern resonance. Step 6 (in coherence with other microtubule tubulins) meets critical threshold related to quantum gravity for self-collapse (Orch OR). Consciousness (Orch OR) occurs in the step 6 to 7 transition. Step 7 represents the eigenstate of mass distribution of the collapse which evolves by classical computing automata to regulate neural function. Quantum coherence begins to re-emerge in step 8.

  • pre-conscious processing which continues until the threshold for objective reduction (OR) is reached by E = h/T;
  • At that instant collapse, or OR occurs which is an actual event in fundamental space-time geometry. This event selects a particular configuration of Planck-scale experiential geometry, enacting a “moment of awareness,” “occasion of experience” or conscious event.

Figure 22. Schematic graph of proposed pre-conscious quantum superposition (number of tubulins) emerging versus time in microtubules. Area under curve connects superposed mass energy E with collapse time T in accordance with E=(h/T. E may be expressed as nt, the number of tubulins whose mass separation (and separation of underlying space time) for time T will self-collapse. For T = 25 msec (e.g. 40 Hz oscillations), nt = 2 x 1010 tubulins.

Figure 23. Schematic of quantum computation of three tubulins which begin (left) in initial classical states, then enter isolated quantum superposition in which all possible states coexist. After reduction, one particular classical outcome state is chosen (right).

Figure 24. Schematic quantum computation in spacetime curvature for three mass distributions (e.g. tubulin conformations in Figure 23) which begin (left) in initial classical states, then enter isolated quantum superposition in which all possible states coexist. After reduction, one particular classical outcome state is chosen (right).

  • A sequence of OR events (e.g. at 40 Hz) provides a forward flow of subjective time and “stream” of consciousness;

Figure 25. Quantum superposition/entanglement in microtubules for 5 states related to consciousness. Area under each curve equivalent in all cases. A. Normal 30 Hz experience: as in Figure 22. B. Anesthesia: anesthetics bind in hydrophobic pockets and prevent quantum delocalizability and coherent superposition. C. Heightened Experience: increased sensory experience input (for example) increases rate of emergence of quantum superposition. Orch OR threshold is reached faster, and Orch OR frequency increases. D. Altered State: even greater rate of emergence of quantum superposition due to sensory input and other factors promoting quantum state (e.g. meditation, psychedelic drug etc.). Predisposition to quantum state results in baseline shift and collapse so that conscious experience merges with normally sub-conscious quantum computing mode. E. Dreaming: prolonged sub-threshold quantum superposition time.

  • At the nanoscale each event determines new classical states of microtubule automata which regulate synaptic and other neural functions;
  • During the pre-conscious quantum superposition/computation phase, oscillations are “tuned” and “orchestrated” by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), providing a feedback loop between the biological system and the quantum state (hence Orch OR);
  • Quantum states in microtubules may link to those in microtubules in other neurons and glia by tunneling through gap junctions, permitting extension of the quantum state throughout significant volumes of the brain.

Figure 26. Schematic of proposed quantum superposition and entanglement in microtubules in three dendrites interconnected by tunneling through gap junctions. Within each neuronal dendrite, microtubule-associated-protein (MAP) attachments breach isolation and prevent quantum coherence; MAP attachment sites thus act as “nodes” which tune and orchestrate quantum oscillations and set possibilities and probabilities for collapse outcomes (orchestrated objective reduction: Orch OR). Gap junctions may enable quantum tunneling among dendrites resulting in macroscopic quantum states.

From E = h/T we can calculate the size and extension of Orch OR events which correlate with subjective or neurophysiological descriptions of conscious events.

Event T E
Buddhist “moment of awareness” 13 ms 4 x 1015 nucleons
(4 x 1010 tubulins/cell ~ 40,000 neurons)
“Coherent 40 Hz” oscillations” 25 ms 2 x 1015 nucleons
(2 x 1010 tubulins/cell ~ 20,000 neurons)
EEG alpha rhythm (8 to 12 Hz) 100 ms 5 x 1014 nucleons
(5 x 109 tubulins/cell ~ 5000 neurons)
Libet’s sensory threshold (1979) 500ms 1014 nucleons
(109 tubulins/cell ~ 1000 neurons)

But how could delicate quantum superposition/computation be isolated from environmental decoherence in the brain (generally considered to be a noisy thermal bath) while also communicating (input/output) with the environment? One possibility is that quantum superposition/computation occurs in an isolation phase which alternates with a communicative phase, for example at 40 Hz. One of the most primitive biological functions is the transition of cytoplasm between a liquid, solution (“sol”) phase, and a solid, gelatinous (“gel”) phase due to assembly and disassembly of the cytoskeletal protein actin. Actin sol-gel transitions can occur at 40 Hz or faster, and are known to be involved in neuronal synaptic release mechanisms.

Mechanisms for enabling microtubule quantum computation and avoiding decoherence long enough to reach threshold may include:

  • Sol-gel transitions;

Figure 27. Immunoelectron micrograph of cytoplasm showing microtubules (arrows), intermediate filaments (arrowheads) and actin microfilaments (mf). Dense gel of actin (lower left) completely obscures (?isolates) microtubules. Actin sol-gel transitions can occur at 40 Hz or faster. Scale bar (upper right): 500 nanometers. With permission from Svitkina et al, 1995.

  • Plasma phase sleeves (Sackett);

Figure 28. Dan Sackett at NIH recently described a plasma-like sleeve of charged ions surrounding microtubules at precisely optimal pH.

  • Quantum excitations/ordering of surrounding water (Jibu/Yasue/Hagan);
  • Hydrophobic pockets;
  • Hollow microtubule cores;
  • Laser-like pumping, including environment (Frohlich, Conrad).
  • Quantum error correcting codes

Another apparent obstacle to the Orch OR proposal is how the weak energy involved in the gravitational collapse can be influential. For a detailed description of this problem and potential solutions, see Hameroff, 1998c. One possibility is that the gravitational self-energy is delivered to the involved tubulins via London forces virtually instantaneously (e.g. within one Planck time) so that the power (energy/time) is significant – approximately one kilowatt per tubulin per Orch OR event.

8. Orch OR, cognition and free will

Quantum computation with objective reduction (Orch OR) is potentially applicable to cognitive activities. While classical neural-level computation can provide a partial explanation, the Orch OR model allows far greater information capacity, and addresses issues of conscious experience, binding, and non-computability consistent with free will. Functions like face recognition and volitional choice may require a series of conscious events arriving at intermediate solutions. For the purpose of illustration consider single Orch OR events in these two types of cognitive activities.

Imagine you briefly see a familiar woman’s face. Is she Amy, Betty, or Carol? Possibilities may superpose in a quantum computation. For example during 25 milliseconds of pre-conscious processing, quantum computation occurs with information (Amy, Betty, Carol) in the form of “qubits”3/4superposed states of microtubule tubulin subunits within groups of neurons. As threshold for objective reduction is reached, an instantaneous conscious event occurs. The superposed tubulin qubits reduce to definite states, becoming bits. Now, you recognize that she is Carol! (an immense number of possibilities could be superposed in a human brain’s 1019 tubulins).

Figure 29. Face recognition. A familiar face induces superposition (left) of three possible solutions (Amy, Betty, Carol) which “collapse” to the correct answer Carol (right). Volitional choice. Three possible dinner selections (shrimp, sushi, pasta) are considered in superposition (left), and collapse via Orch OR to choice of sushi (right).

In a volitional act possible choices may be superposed. Suppose for example you are selecting dinner from a menu. During pre-conscious processing, shrimp, sushi and pasta are superposed in a quantum computation. As threshold for objective reduction is reached, the quantum state reduces to a single classical state. A choice is made. You’ll have sushi!

How does the choice actually occur? In a conventional neural network scheme, the selection criteria can be described by a deterministic algorithm which precludes the possibility of free will. The non-computable influence in Orch OR may be useful in understanding free will.

The problem in understanding free will is that our actions seem neither totally deterministic nor random (probabilistic). What else is there in nature? As previously described, in OR (and Orch OR) the reduction outcomes are neither deterministic nor probabilistic, but involve a factor which is “non-computable.” The microtubule quantum superposition evolves linearly (analogous to a quantum computer) but is influenced at the instant of collapse by hidden non-local variables (quantum-mathematical logic inherent in fundamental spacetime geometry). The possible outcomes are limited, or probabilities set (“orchestrated”), by neurobiological feedback (in particular microtubule associated proteins, or MAPs). The precise outcome3/4our free will actions3/4are chosen by effects of the hidden logic on the quantum system poised at the edge of objective reduction.

Figure 30. Free will may be seen as the result of deterministic processes (behavior of trained robot windsurfer) acted on repeatedly by non-computable influences, here represented as a seemingly capricious wind.

Consider a sailboard analogy for free will. A sailor sets the sail in a certain way; the direction the board sails is determined by the action of the wind on the sail. Let’s pretend the sailor is a non-conscious robot zombie run by a quantum computer which is trained and programmed to sail. Setting and adjusting of the sail, sensing the wind and position, jibing and tacking (turning the board) are algorithmic and deterministic, and may be analogous to the pre-conscious, quantum computing phase of Orch OR. The direction and intensity of the wind (seemingly capricious, or unpredictable) may be considered analogous to Planck scale hidden non-local variables (e.g. “Platonic” quantum-mathematical logic inherent in space-time geometry). The choice, or outcome (the direction the boat sails, the point on shore it lands) depends on the deterministic sail settings acted on repeatedly by the apparently unpredictable wind. Our “free will” actions could be the net result of deterministic processes acted on by hidden quantum logic at each Orch OR event. This can explain why we generally do things in an orderly, deterministic fashion, but occasionally our actions or thoughts are surprising, even to ourselves.

9. Consciousness and evolution

When in the course of evolution did consciousness first appear? Are all living organisms conscious, or did consciousness emerge more recently, e.g. with language or toolmaking? Or did consciousness appear somewhere in between, and if so, when and why? The Orch OR model (unlike other models of consciousness) is able to make a prediction as to the onset of consciousness. Based on E = h/T we can ask, for example, is it feasible for single cell organisms such as paramecium (which exhibit complex behavior such as graceful swimming, mating and learning) to be conscious? Single cells including paramecium should contain approximately 107 tubulins, so T would be 50,000 msec, or nearly one minute. This seems unlikely. Larger organisms such as the nematode worm (e.g., C. elegans) with 300 neurons (3 x 109 tubulins) would need to maintain quantum isolation for only 133 msec – not unreasonable. Such organisms (tiny worms and urchins) were prevalent at the beginning of the “Cambrian explosion,” a burst of evolution which occurred 540 million years ago. Did primitive consciousness (via Orch OR) accelerate evolution and precipitate the Cambrian explosion?

Figure 31. A time-line of when consciousness could have arisen.

The Cambrian explosion was a burst of evolution 540 million years ago. Organisms present at the Cambrian onset included small worms and urchins. Did consciousness (Orch OR) cause the Cambrian explosion?

Figure 32. Organisms present at the early Cambrian explosion (e.g. tiny urchins, worms and suctorians) are the right size for primitive consciousness by Orch OR.

Figure 33. Actinosphaerium is a tiny urchin like those present at the early Cambrian explosion. Each has about one hundred rigid axonemes about 300 microns long, made up of a total of about 3 x 109 tubulins (with permission from L.E. Roth).

Figure 34. Cross-section of single axoneme of actinosphaerium – a double spiral array of interconnected microtubules. Scale bar: 500 nm (with permission from L.E. Roth).

Would consciousness be advantageous to survival (above and beyond intelligent, complex behavior)? It seems that, yes, consciousness would indeed be advantageous to survival, and hence capable of accelerating evolution. Non-computable behavior (unpredictability, intuitive actions) would be beneficial in predator-prey relations. Having conscious experience of taste would promote finding food; the experience of pain would promote avoiding predators. And the pleasurable qualia of sex would promote reproduction.

So “what is it like to be a worm?” Lacking our sensory apparatus, associative memory and complex nervous system such primitive consciousness would be a mere glimmer, a disjointed smudge of reality. But qualitatively, at a basic level, such primitive consciousness would be akin to ours.

What about future evolution? Will consciousness occur in computers? The advent of quantum computers opens the possibility, however as presently envisioned quantum computers will have insufficient mass in superposition (e.g. electrons) to reach threshold for objective reduction. Instead, superpositions will be disrupted by environmental decoherence. Conceivably, future generations of quantum computers could satisfy requirements for objective reduction and consciousness.

10. Conclusions
  • Brain processes relevant to consciousness extend downward within neurons to the level of cytoskeletal microtubules.
  • An explanation for conscious experience requires (in addition to neuroscience and psychology) a modern form of pan-protopsychism in which proto-conscious qualia are embedded in the basic level of reality, as described by modern physics.
  • Roger Penrose’s physics of objective reduction (OR) connects brain structures to fundamental reality, leading to the Penrose-Hameroff model of quantum computation with objective reduction in microtubules (orchestrated objective reduction: Orch OR).
  • The Orch OR model is consistent with known neurophysiological processes, generates testable predictions, and is the type of fundamental, multi-level, interdisciplinary theory which may account for the mind’s enigmatic features.
11. Acknowledgments & References

Some of the newer ideas expresssed here may not necessarily reflect Roger’s view. Thanks to Dave Cantrell for illustrations, and Carol Ebbecke for expert technical assistance. For a list of testable predictions of the Orch OR model, see Hameroff, 1998c or e.


Penrose, R. (1989) The Emperor’s New Mind, Oxford Press, Oxford, U.K

Penrose, R. (1994) Shadows of the Mind, Oxford Press, Oxford, U.K.

Penrose, R., Hameroff, S.R. (1995) What gaps? Reply to Grush and Churchland. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2(2):99-112.

Hameroff, S.R., and Penrose, R., (1996a) Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: A model for consciousness. In: Toward a Science of Consciousness – The First Tucson Discussions and Debates, S.R. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak and A.C. Scott (eds.), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.pp. 507-540. Also published in Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 40:453-480.

Hameroff, S.R., and Penrose, R. (1996b) Conscious events as orchestrated spacetime selections. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3(1):36-53.

Penrose, R. (1996) On gravity’s role in quantum state reduction. General relativity and gravitation. 28(5): 581-600

Penrose, R. (1997) On understanding understanding. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 11(1):7-20.

Penrose R. (1998) The large, the small, and the human mind

Hameroff, S. (1998a) Did consciousness cause the Cambrian evolutionary explosion? In: Toward a Science of Consciousness II – The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates. Eds S Hameroff, A Kaszniak, A Scott. MIT Press, Cambridge MA pp 421-437

Hameroff, S. (1998b) “More neural than thou”: Reply to Churchland’s “Brainshy” in: Toward a Science of Consciousness II – The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates. Eds S Hameroff, A Kaszniak, A Scott. MIT Press, Cambridge MA pp 197-213

Hameroff, S. (1998c) Funda-mental geometry: The Penrose-Hameroff Orch OR model of consciousness. In: The geometric universe – Science, geometry and the work of Roger Penrose. Eds. S.A. Huggett, L.J. Mason, K.P. Tod, S.T. Tsou, and N.M.J. Woodhouse. Oxford Press, Oxford, U.K. pp 135-160

Hameroff, S. (1998d) “Funda-Mentality” – Is the conscious mind subtly connected to a basic level of the universe? Trends in Cognitive Science 2(4):119-127

Hameroff, S. (1998e) Quantum computation in microtubules? The Penrose-Hameroff ‘Orch OR’ model of consciousness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A (London)356:1869-1896

Hameroff, S. (1998f) Anesthesia, consciousness and hydrophobic pockets – A unitary quantum hypothesis of anesthetic action. Toxicology Letters 100/101-31-39.

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Source and Image credits:http://www.healingtalks.com/tag/what-is-consciousness-2/, StarStuffs © http://www.starstuffs.com/physcon, http://www.ks.uiuc.edu/Research/vmd/events/sc2001.html, http://www.halexandria.org/dward397.htm, http://www.quantumconsciousness.org/presentations/whatisconsciousness.html#quantum

  1. October 29, 2012 at 5:59 pm | #1

    News in Physics on popular language for all physicists and reasonable people: “SECRETS of LIGHTNING and FIREBALL”. It was founded on the basis of ancient Indian Sanskrit texts. I recommend you to publish this great opening at your Country too (republishing of entire text and illustrations are permitted free of charge by the Author). This is the answer on today’s popular question why a life is ill (free of charge): http://ways.org/en/blogs/2012/sep/30/revolution_in_physics , or http://www.facebook.com/givi.alaznispireli . And, please, see the text under the name “GREATEST DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD, WHICH WILL CHANGE THINKING OF MANKIND”, chapter 2: “Where the stars look” (free of charge): http://ways.org/en/blogs/2011/nov/19/greatest_discovery_of_the_world_which_will_change_thinking_of_mankind_text_2 . This is the explanation, why from the territory of Republic of Georgia we can to see much and bright stars, than from the remaining places of our Planet. This gigantic fact was rechecked from 23 countries and proved experimentally! There is the answer, what is the phenomenon of Tree of Life, i.e. what was the “Tree of Bothi” for Old Indian people or what is the “Dim-Gal” by the Sumerian oldest knowledge.

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